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Turkey is one of
the most ancient settlement areas of the world as four seasons are
encountered on the fruitful land on which thousands of natural plant grows. At the archeological excavations in the Karain cave near
Antalya, various traces relevant with the lower, intermediate and upper
periods of Paleolithic Age. The Paleolithic Age is generally accepted to
start in two million years before the present time and ended ten thousand
years ago. The most developed Neolithic Age settlement center of the Ancient
Near-east and Aegean is Çatalhöyük, which is 52 km southeast of Konya
Province. Anatolia has entered to the Ancient Bronze Age by the end of BC IV.
Thousand and by the beginning of BC III. Thousand.
Anatolia has entered to the inscribed history period by
the beginning of the year BC 1950. The Hittites has founded the first state
governed by the central system in Anatolia at the year of BC 1750. The traces
and the art work belonging to Hittites are obtained from the archeological
excavations carried in Boğazköy, Alacahöyük, Eskiyapar, İnandık, Maşathöyük,
Kargamış, Zincirli, Arslantepe, Karatepe, Sakçagözü and in various places
which were under the reign of Hittites.
After destroying the Hittite Empire, Frigs have gained
the dominance over some region of Anatolia between BC 1200-700 years. Their
government center was Gordion, at the vicinity of Ankara. Urartus, founding a
state around Van Lake with their capital as Tuşba (Van) at the beginning of
BC I. Thousand has added important works of art to our cultural heritage.
By the end of the BC II. Thousand, as a result of the
Dorian migrations, the first Hellenist colonies begin to settle at the
western parts of Anatolia. The effect of Ion civilization had significantly
increased in Western Anatolia after the year BC 1050. Karia, Lycia and Lydia
Civilizations had their brightest and most advanced periods between BC VII-
VI. Centuries. The Lydians founded a state at the central parts of Aegean
Region by the years around BC 700 with the capital city of Sardes and this
civilization made the first currency in the form of coins. The Lydian
Civilization was destroyed by Persians in BC 546. But the Lydian civilization
continue to effect Anatolia until BC 300. During the reign of Persians in the
western Anatolia, because of the combination of the Persian culture with the
Greek culture, Greco- Persian Style art works were established and appeared.
After the invasion of Anatolia by Alexander the Great,
the Hellenistic Period (BC 333-30) began in Anatolia. During this period, the
cities of Aegean Region was ornamented by architectural art works. After BC
30 and following years, there was a major cultural improvement under the reign
of Roman Empire. As the Roman Empire was divided into two in the year 395,
Byzantium period began in Anatolia and the art works were adapted to this
culture. Parallel to the spreading of the Christianity, there was a
significant increase in the religious structures and works. The Byzantium
period ended in year 1453, after the conquering of Istanbul by Turks. During
this period, the cities of Aegean Region were ornamented with the
architectural art works.
Turks begin to settle in Anatolia starting from the
beginning of the XI. Century during the period of Great Seljuk Empire. During
the period of the Turkey Seljuks (1075-1318) who could be counted as the
continuation of Great Seljuk Empire, the older cities were repaired and
ornamented with new structures and also new settlement places were founded.
The priority was set to the religious architecture required by Islam,
education institutions and hospitals.
The Ottomans, which founded a state in 1299 and become
an empire later had obtained the unification in Anatolia in the period of
Fatih Sultan Mehmet. During the ascension period which begins with Fatih
Sultan Mehmet, the borders of the empire reached to the inner parts of Iran
to Central Europe and from Crimea to Northern Africa. The Ottoman Empire carried
its own culture to these new conquered lands while absorbing the admired
elements into its own from these lands. Therefore, a rich culture mosaic is
founded. Starting from the XVIII. Century, The effects of
European culture on the Ottoman culture is seen.
After the Turkish Independence War under the command of
great leader Atatürk, Republic of Turkey was founded in 29 October 1923. The
Republic of Turkey took over a rich cultural heritage from the Ottoman
Government. Atatürk initiated important studies concerning about
enlightening, preserving and presentation of this rich heritage. He founded
Turkish Language and History Institutions. He founded and helped education in
Faculty of Language, History and Geography. He showed great importance to Museums.
He reverted Topkapı Palace and Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) into museums. By
archeological excavations he hold, numerous art works and ancient remains
have come into light and entered into museums.
Being a geographic location for numerous civilizations
and a mosaic of various cultures, Turkey is one of the leading countries of
having rich cultural background and varieties. Turkey has united his natural
beauties with its cultural riches and therefore made great improvements in
the tourism field. The remains and works of ancient cultures other than
Turkish background are preserved and great importance is paid to these art
works. Today, although most of the Turkish oriented remains and art works are
totally destroyed in Balkans and Central Europe, in Turkey all of the foreign
oriented art works are preserved even if they do not have artistic value.
There are thousands of art works and ancient remains that could be called as
a Wonder in Turkey. The Ephesus Arthemis Temple and Halikarnas Bodrum
Mausoleum, which are counted among the seven wonders of the world, were once
inside the borders of Turkey. The still remaining parts of these two unique
wonders and some of the Turkey's cultural riches are demonstrated at the
major museums all around the world. If only the magnificent tiles are tried
to be assembled together at one source, volumes of art works having the title
of wonder is formed. The mansions, palaces, mosques, meander, şadırvan,
fountains, wooden balconies and clothing do not fit into any sort of volumes.
In Turkey, happily, we have numerous wonderful and unique art works.
ART OF TURKEY
Turkish Literature before Islam.
Vocal Tradition: There are no written
documents about Turkish oral or written literature art works that could
withstand to reach the modern times before VII. Century. However, some
samples of oral tradition as sagu, koşuk, sav etc. and certain parts and
theme summaries of some epics are encountered in the sources written in
Chinese, Persian, Mongolian and Arabic which are inscribed at later
centuries. These sort of information and quotations were also encountered in
some Turkish sources.
Sagu are the poetry displaying the characteristics of
laments and are sang at the mourning ceremonies called yuğ.
Koşuk is the general name of poetry which carry the
themes of war, courage, nature and love and are sang at the ceremonies called
sığır and şölen. These poems are sang in quatrains and syllable meters.
Epic poems are the long, written in verse stories, each
carrying its own special elegant form to tell its story. The themes of these
epic poems are mostly concerned about the existence of the nation and the
encountered major events like war, immigration and natural disasters. There
are mythological personalities and supernatural events narrated at the epic
Each Turk clan constituted their own epic poems in order
to spread their national characteristics at their oral tradition. The most
important samples of these epic poems are Kök Turk Epic Poems, Uygur Epic
Poems, Manas Epic Poem of Kırgız Turks, Oğuz Kaan Epic Poem (Oğuznâme) of
Oğuz Turks and the book of Dede Korkut.
Literature of Kök Turk: According to the recent information gathered, the first written
text of the Turkish Literature are determined to be the Inscriptions of Orhon
and Yenisey. Although the written words are in small amounts, the fluency of
the tongue of the written text carries great importance.
Other than these inscriptions belonging to Kök Turks,
there are various other inscriptions and rune carved objects of Kırgız and
Literature of Uygur: Uygurs
played an important role at the development and spreading of the Central
Asian Turkish culture. The temple ruins of three major religions of Uygur
civilization (Mani Religion, Buddhism and Christianity) were discovered in
the excavations executed at the locations where Uygurs thrived in Central
Asia in recent centuries. The Uygur language texts discovered in these
temples are the sources informing us about ancient Uygur history, culture and
Turkish Literature Developed in Central Asia under the
effect of Islam Civilization
The group of the Eastern Turkish Literature Group is
composed of Karahanlı Literature, Harizm - Altınordu Literature and Çağatay
Literature. The Western Turkish is sampled with the Azerbaijani Literature.
Turkish Literature in Anatolia
After the acceptance of Islam among the Turkish clans, a
new point of view and a different literature altering in the scope of
literary styles, poetry forms and different meters are revealed among these
clans. The language encountered an alteration. The traces of the old
literature survived among the folk literature. The literature peculiar to the
intellectuals is effected by the literature of Arabia and Persia.
Literature of Reforms Period: This literature movement is initiated with the publishing of the
"Tercüman-ı Ahval" ( Interpreter of States) Newspaper in 1860. This
movement is dependent on the art intellect of the artists whom are grown up
with the Western Culture and whom take this western culture as a model. The
representatives of this movement renovated the literature works as poetry,
history and letters found in the Divan Literature according to the western
intellect., and also produced new works in the article, theater, novel,
story, memoir and criticism type.
Edebiyat-ı Cedide (Servet-i Fünun): This is a modernization movement initiated by the writers and
artists which were collected around the Servet-i Fünûn Journal between
1896-1901. The Edebiyat-ı Cedîde movement had laid great importance to the
shape delicacy and psychological observations but as a compensation, had
digressed from the social problems.
Fecr-i Âtî : The Fecr-i Âtî
writers had produced works displaying romantic and symbolic effects during
the first period of II. Constitutional Monarchy. The taste and the point of
view of Fecr-i Âtî writers were similar with the writers of Edebiyat-ı
Movement of National Literature and Literature of
The Genç Kalemler (Young Pens) journal had initiated a
movement under the name of Yeni Lisan (New Language), having the theme of
transferring the spoken language into the written language.
The Turkish oriented and nationalist intellectual young
generation had effected the Literature of the Republic Period initially. This
generation had believed the necessity of writing in the spoken language which
the society could understand in order to impress the society and used this
spoken language in their literal art works. Especially, the Turkish poetry,
which had developed between years 1920-1940 in the same movement and social
conditions displayed the common properties with novels and stories. The simplified
language in the novels and stories are similarly used in the poetry with the
same simplification and syllable metre. The common subject was the living of
the folk of Anatolia.
Although Turkey did not participate in the World War Two
between 1940-1945, it was effected from the social, political and cultural
variations occurring afterwards. The war, which had been initiated against Nasism and
Fascism ideologically, had gained superiority against the socialist movements
together with the Western democracy in Turkey as happened in the entire
The majority of the novel and story writers had applied
and reflected their thoughts about the life to the literature in the name of
Numerous art works of novels, stories, theatres, humors,
poetry and essay were produced in this period
The novel and story writers of the Republic Period had
described the life with plain, frank, simple tongue.
After 1950, existentialism and supernaturalism movements
coming from Western Culture had effected the Turkish culture. But, besides
this interaction, Turkish writers and poets had produced their original art
religion, the head of the religious ritual was called şaman, kam or baksı and
he was enchanting the audience with a piece of iron producing periodic
sounds. The drum was an important tool in this rituals.
Most of the Turkish nations like Turks living north of
China, Hun Turks, Uygur Turks, Seljuks and Ottomans had paid great importance
to music. No army of Seljuks without poets and kopuzcu (folk poets) is
In the palaces and army headquarters of the elder
Turkish khans, musicians played the songs called "9 kök" (9 roots)
Classical Turkish Music
The Ottomans had paid great importance not only to the
art of music but also to the science of the music. There are assumptions
concerning that Turkish music is originated from Arabic, Persian, ancient
Greek and Byzantium. But Turkish music is originated from Turkish culture
when considered from general qualities. Music, was influenced from the
culture and art of their environment like other branches of art. But this
influence was not imitation, indeed. The Turkish music was shaped inside its
own essence system and Turkish art tradition and produced works.
The Turkish music appears such in various mediums: songs, compositions, semai, kar at cities and palace environs;
azan, prayer, mourning, affirmation, temcit, prayer to the god at mosques;
naat, ritual, hymn, breath, demand at dervish lodges; folk songs, bozlak,
uzun hava, zeybek, oyun havası at villages; serhat türküsü at border lines;
mehter music at barracks ... After the occupation of Istanbul, education
about music was initiated in Enderun Musiki Mektebi (Enderun Music
Conservatory), founded in Topkapı Palace and private music schools and after
this education Turkish music had derived rules specifically and obtained a
classical music quality and is examined in six sections:
1- The preparatory period extending to Meragalı
Abdülkadir (1360-1435) from the beginning. 2- The first classical period between Meragalı
Abdülkadir and Itri (1640-1712). 3- Last classical period between Itri and Dede Efendi
(1778-1846). 4- The neoclassical period between Dede Efendi and Zekai
Dede (1825-1397). 5- The romantic period between Zekai Dede and H.
Saadettin Arel (1880-1955). 6- The reform period starting with Saadettin Arel and
The works related strictly to the rules were produced in
this classic first period. But these rules were forced in the last classic
period. These forced rules begin to disperse in the Neoclassic period.
We see Dede Efendi in the period of Selim III, who
produced works ranging between Mevlevi ritual and köçekçe and therefore break
the classical rules of Sadullah Ağa by developing lyricism element while
obeying the classical rules.
The Turkish music system is composed of forms, methods,
modes, orders including 24 intervals and 25 frets.
The Turkish Folk Music can be both verbal or non -
verbal. The verbal music includes all sorts of folk songs and dance music and
non - verbal music includes non verbal dance music. The folk songs with metre are called kırık hava
(fractured tunes), songs without meter are called uzun hava (long tunes). The
long tunes are named in various names as bozlak, türkmani, maya, hoyrat,
divan, ağıt at different regions of Anatolia. These tunes were sang by famous
folk singers like Karacaoğlan, Emrah, Ruhsati, Sümmani and many more.
The fractured tunes are called as koşma, yiğitleme,
güzelleme, taşlama and ninni. The topics of these tunes are generally carry
the specific village themes as being away from home, remoteness, home
sickness, death, attending to military service, bravery, wedding, child
affection and kidnapping the lover and display properties like plainness,
sincerity and emotion and reflect the local colors. When the melody structure
of the Turkish Folk Music is examined, it is observed that this melody was
created at the dual and pentad intervals that definitely do not reflect the
tonality and order which completes an octave (eight voice limit) Besides,
there are numerous other wide limited and octave melodies that state tonality
and order . Turkish Folk Music is composed of tunes and forms which include
unsystematic metres beside plain and composed meters.
The Republic Period
The evolutionary movements initiated at the Republic
Period had also directed towards the art manners.
The Musiki Muallim Mektebi (Music Teacher Training School)
was founded in Ankara in 1924. The music band in the Ottoman palace was
brought to the capital and concerts were arranged under the name of Riyaseti
Cumhur Filarmoni Orkestrası (Presidency Philharmonic Orchestra.
The skilled young students was send to Europe for
education. The school named Darrültalimi Musiki in Istanbul was transformed
into a conservatory with an issued regulation.
The first Turkish musician to become famous in Western
civilizations at the Multi vocal art music branch was Cemal Reşit Rey. Ulvi
Cemal Erkin, Hasan Ferit Alnar, Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Necil Kazım Akses who
were educated in foreign countries by the sponsorship of the government had
become teachers in Ankara Musiki Muallim Mektebi (Ankara Music Teacher
Training School). The musicians are known as Turkish Five in the history of
Turkish Art. These musicians had fused the western music principles with the
folk music elements.
The one screen opera of Ahmet Adnan Saygun named Özsoy
was displayed at Ankara Community Center in 1924. The second work of the same
composer Taşbebek, was displayed with succession in 1934. In order to display
the plays of opera and ballet, an Application Scene under the control of
Ankara Government Music School had started its studies in 1940. After the
election between the skilled young, the education started. The plays like
Kerem of Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Van Gogh and Gılgamış of Nevit Kodallı,
Nasreddin Hoca of Sabahattin Kalender and Çeşmebaşı of Ferit Tüzün are
displayed in the following years. After Ankara, governmental music schools
are founded in Istanbul and İzmir. The necessary and suitable medium for these young and
talented youth is prepared after 1940, assisting the development of Turkish
Music. Soprano Leyla Gencer, baritone Orhan Günek are the pioneers of this
movement and are followed by Ayhan Baran as bass, commentator, soprano Ferhan
Onat and soprano Suna Korat. As instrument commentator, pianist Erdoğan
Saydam, violin player Ayla Erduran, Suna Kan, pianist Ayşegül Sarıca, İdil
Biret, Hülya Saydam, Verda Erman had gathered great interest from inland and
Nowadays, Gazi University Music Department, Bilkent
University Faculty of Music and Stage Arts, municipality conservatoires,
private schools, choruses founded under the constitution of private sector
and government, amateur chorus and orchestras had assisted the spreading and
claiming of the Turkish art Music, folk music and tasavvuf (Sufism).
We can briefly study the Turkish Theatre
in four sections:
Theatre: Turks know about some puppet play types
before settling in Anatolia. After their settlement in Anatolia, they have
developed plays from the remnants of the fertility blessing rituals which are
considered to be the major source of the world theatre and these plays are
still played in our villages. The development of theatre in cities were
greatly assisted by the military, palace and the guilds.
Among the plays having dramatic properties, meddah,
puppet, fake wars, shadow play, juggler and ortaoyunu are the principal play
Reforms Period Theatre (1839 - 1908) : The Turkish community had been introduced to the western theatre
in this period. The first step was the construction of the theatre buildings.
Local and foreign oriented theatre communities were founded. The government
had supported the theatre movements occurring under self control or private.
Beside musicals and plays, tuluat theatres and ortaoyunları which are not
dependent on written texts have developed.
Constitutional Monarchy Period Theatre (1908 - 1923) : Just after the declaration of 2nd Constitutional Monarchy, the
number of the theatre associations have rapidly increased. The tendency to
become actors spread among youth.
The first important step to train actors from schools
were taken in this period and the first conservatoire named Dârülbedaii
Osmani were founded in 1914. Two years later, this conservatoire was transformed
into a funded theatre community, therefore the foundations of modern Istanbul
City Theatre Community was laid.
The Constitutional Monarchy Period Theatre has important
roles in the scope of theatre. The primary role is that Constitutional Monarchy
acts as a passage between the old period and Turkish Republic. The old values
and organizations were discussed and new values and organizations to replace
these old values and organizations were researched. The language of the
theatre had improved, the foundations of funded theatre organizations were
laid, the importance of education about theatre is understood and fights for
staging women actresses were carried. The number of the plays, actors and
theatres increased, social, political and legal subjects were displayed in
Republic Period Theatre (until 1923) : Turkish Theatre had exceeded the trial and search period and
reached the period of creation and self issuance in this period. The theatre
education by government, foundation of a government theatre, spreading of
theatre throughout the country by community houses was executed during this
period. Beside government theatres and operas and municipality theatres,
private theatres are founded and developed. Theatres were constructed in the suburban
areas of large cities, country cities and even in villages. Separate from
widespreading conservatories, academic theatre education was initiated in
Cinema had been introduce to Turkey a
few months after the demonstration of Lumiere Brothers in 28 December 1895.
The first projection was displayed by Bertrand, patron juggler of the Yıldız
Palace in 1896, followed by other projections. The construction and opening
of the first cinema hall was delayed to 1908, as the timely ruler II.
Abdülhamid did not grant permission to connect electricity to Istanbul with
the thought of preventing a possible assassination to himself .
The first movie was shot by Fuat Özkınay in 1914, in the
year which the Ottoman Empire had participated the World War One (The
Collapsing of the Russian Monument in Ayastefanos ), the first organization
to produce regular movies was the Central Army Cinema Department leaded by
Sigmund Weinberg and Fuat Özkınay. The movie production was started from here
with the shooting of documentaries / information movies about the ongoing war
in 1915 and although less in numbers, shots of movies with other themes were
carried. Pençe (Claw), Casus (Spy) (1917), Himmet Ağa'nın İzdivacı (Marriage
of Himmet Ağa) (1918), Mürebbiye ve Binnaz (Governess and Binnaz) (1919) are
some of the theme movies. This 8 year period completed by the movie İstiklâl,
İzmir Zaferi (Independence, İzmir Victory) which was a major Independence War
documentary in 1922 had been assumed to be the "first period "of
From 1923, the second period had started, which was
totally executed by Muhsin Ertuğrul one handedly who was a man of theatres
for 17 years. Besides the numerous movies shot, this period could not go
further than being a period in which no cinema language was formed and movies
scenting theatre were produced. Bir Millet Uyanıyor (A Nation is Rising)
(1932), Aysel, Bataklı Damın Kızı (Aysel, Daughter of Bad House) (1935), Leblebici
Horhor (roasted chickpea seller Horhor) (1934) are among the relatively
interesting movies of this period.
The period between the years 1939 and 1950 are called as
the transition period and as this period is intersected with the World War
Two, it was not a productive period for the cinema and producers. The
important and noteworthy improvement of this period is that the cinema
generation was able to break the monopoly established by the theatres both on
industry and art.
The fruits of this succession of the preceding years
were started to be collected in the period between 1950 and 1960. Among the
most important producers of this period in which the meaningful attempts of
thinking in cinema terms or shooting movies with the cinema language Lütfü
AKAD, Osman SEDEN, Atıf YILMAZ, Metin ERKSAN, Memduh ÜN could be counted
Among the most attractive and interesting movies of the
period, Kanun Namına (In the name of law) (1952) directed by Lütfü AKAD and
Osman SEDEN attracts attention by its story, language, places, characters and
montage and is not only a art work for cinema, Gelinin Muradı ( Desire of the
bride) (1952) directed by Atıf YILMAZ , Üç Arkadaş (Three Friends) (1958)
directed by Memduh ÜN and Gecelerin Ötesi (Beyond The Nights) (1960) directed
by Metin ERKSAN should be considered.
In spite of this improvement process happened especially
between 1955-60 and major cinema breakthroughs, Turkish cinema had
encountered another 10 years of dissention. Because, until then an approximate
number about a hundred movies were shot in a year and later the number of the
movies begin to increase uncontrollably and exceeded over two hundreds and as
no infrastructure to withstand or cover this load is established, the fact
had become a major collusion. In this period lasting in 1970, movies
deserving notification had been able to shot: Yılanların Öcü (Revenge of the
snakes) (1962), Acı Hayat (Bitter life) (1963) and Susuz Yaz (Dry summer)
(1963, Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Reward) directed by Metin ERKSAN,
Yasak Aşk (Forbidden Love) (1961), Karanlıkta Uyananlar (Sleepers in the
dark) (1965) directed by Halit REFİĞ, Bitmeyen Yol (Never Ending Road) (1965)
directed by Duygu SAĞIROĞLU and Son Kuşlar (Last Birds) (1966) directed by
After the period following 1970, Yılmaz GÜNEY and his
movie Umut (hope) had been a milestone. After this, whether GÜNEY or other
directors had produced numerous high quality movies concerning the social,
cultural and economic realities of Turkey, which had gained the necessary
national and international admiration. The movie Otobüs (Autobus) (1974) of
Tunç OKAN which had been rewarded in numerous various places, Endişe
(anxiety) (1974) directed by Şerif GÖREN, Yatık Emine (leaning Emine)
directed by Ömer KAVUR, Kanal (Channel) (1976) directed by Erden KIRAL, Maden
(Mine) (1978) directed by Yavuz ÖZKAN are some of the movies of this period.
As the factors like the organization of the workers and
producers of the movie industry, the major supports from the Ministry of
Culture, the increasing quality of the cinema education and Eurimages are
added to the productivity of the movie making, we could say that a period
like 1980 and later in which the ascending productivity is encountered is
very natural to happen. Starting this 20 year long and surviving period by
the movie Sürü (herd), written by Yılmaz GÜNEY, directed by Zeki ÖKTEN and
original music composed by Zülfü LİVANELİ would be appropriate. This movie
had been in projection at the cinema halls of Zurich for 8 weeks and Basel
for 7 weeks in 1980 and had achieved to be rewarded as the best film among 93
other competitors at London Film Festival.
Yol (road) which was written by Yılmaz GUNEY and
directed by Şerif GÖREN had shared the Golden Palm Reward with Kayıp
(Missing) by Costa Gavras at Cannes Film Festival in 1987.
Hakkari'de Bir Mevsim (A season in Hakkari) directed by
Erden KIRAL in 1983, At (Horse) directed by Ali ÖZGENTÜRK in 1984, Züğürt Ağa
(Penniless Aga) directed by Nesli ÇÖLGEÇEN in 1985, Kurbağalar (Frogs)
directed by Şerif GÖREN, Amansız Yol (Merciless Road) directed by Ömer KAVUR,
Anayurt Oteli (Anayurt Hotel) directed by Ömer KAVUR in 1986 and Uçurtmayı
Vurmasınlar (Don't let them shoot the kite) directed by Tunç BAŞARAN in 1988
are among the rewarded movies to be initially remembered. The movies of the last ten years starting from 1990
until the current date and considered here in this page are taken into
account in order to enlighten the interested persons, more than stating the
cinema level reached today. Because the "Turkish Movie" is ready to
obtain the high prestige location among the world movie not only with the
human resources as directors, actors and actresses, writers, cameraman but
also with the efforts of infrastructure improvements in order to catch the
modern technical standards.
Some of the major films between years 1990-2000:
Ömer KAVUR- Gizli Yüz (Secret Face) (1990) Yusuf KURÇENLİ - Piyano Piyano Bacaksız (Piano Piano
Kid) (1990) Atıf YILMAZ - Berdel (1991) Fehmi YAŞAR - Camdan Kalp (Heart of Glass ) (1991) Ferzan ÖZPETEK - Hamam (1996) Yavuz TURGUL - Eşkiya (Brigand) (1996) Derviş ZAİM - Tabutta Röveşata (röveşata in a coffin)
(1996) Zeki DEMİRKUBUZ - Masumiyet (innocence) (1997), Üçüncü
Sayfa (Third Page) (1998) Mustafa ALTIOKLAR- Ağır Roman (Heavy Novel) (1997) Serdar AKAR - Gemide (On the ship) (1998) Reha Erdem - Kaç Para Kaç (Run money run) (1998) Tomris GİRİTLİOĞLU - Salkım Hanımın Taneleri (Pieces of
Miss Salkım) (1999) Nuri Bilge CEYEAN - Mayıs Sıkıntısı (Boredom of May) (
2000) Ömer Faruk SORAK - Vizontele (2000)
After the increase
of relationship with European Countries after Reforms, the opera communities from
France, Italy, Germany, Austria and Greece had visited Turkey and displayed
seasonal opera shows at the new constructed opera halls in Istanbul and
İzmir. Some major operas had their gala displayed in Turkey. There were some
foreign composers and libretto writers who composed opera and displayed in
Turkey. As an example, Silistre opera which was composed by Italian Giacomo
Panizza and libretto written by Dr. Gabriel Naum and having the theme of the
Turkish courage at the Silistre Defense. In XlX. Century, Turkish spectators
were able to watch Aida from three different communities in the same night in
Beyoğlu. Meanwhile, the communities of minority nations were on stage with
operas, opera-humours and operettas and display native plays. These studies
continued in the Constitutional Monarchy Period but mostly operetta type
native plays were on stage. Some opera compositions as Kenan Çobanları,
Libretto written by Halide Edip Adıvar and composed by Vedia Sabra, Nesteren
Opera composed by Mehmet Baha Bey, a humorous opera named Şaban composed by
Celal Esat Arseven together with Vittorio Redaglia which was displayed in
Vienna in 1913, İhtiyar which was staged by amateurs in 1920, libretto
written by Şehabettin Süleyman and Hulki Arnil Keymen and composed by Nurullah
Taşkıran could be counted as samples.
The studies of musical theatre had continued after the
declaration of Republic although no interest was paid to opera initially. The
Opera Association was founded in 1930. La Traviata was staged by Büyük Opera Heyeti
(Major Opera Committee) in 1934. Again to the honor of the visit of Iran Shah
in 1934, Feridun (So called Özsoy) composed by Ahmet Adnan Saygun and
libretto written by Münir Hayri Egeli was staged in Ankara Community Center
in 19 June. Taşbebek Opera composed by Ahmet Adnan Saygun was staged in same
year. Bay Önder Opera was composed by Necil Kazım Akses, libretto written by
Münir Hayri Egeli.
After these studies which could not exceed to be trials,
the opera department was founded after the foundation of Ankara Government
Conservatoire in 1940. The disciplined and real opera studies under the
control of Karl Ebert was initiated.
The first opera performance staged was Bastien and
Bastienne by Mozart and Madame Butterfly of Puccini in 1941 June.
Until 1970 in which a new Governmental Opera and Ballet
General Law was issued, theatre, opera and ballet departments were gathered
under a single general directorate. During this period, operas of famous
composers like Puccini, Donizetti, Beethoven, Mozart Leoncavallo, Çaykovski
and Bizet were staged. Among the famous opera samples, Kerem of Adnan Saygun,
Van Gogh opera of Nevit Kodallı (libretto Orhan Asena, Bülent Sokullu, Aydın
Gün) Gılgamış of Nevit Kodallı (libretto Orhan Asena), Nasreddin Hoca of Sabahattin
Kalender (libretto Gülümser Kalender), Midas' ın Kulakları (Midas's Ears) of
Ferit Tüzün (libretto Güngör Dilmen) could be counted.
Government Opera trained world wide opera artists like
Leyla Gencer, Orhan Günek, Suna Korat, Ayhan Baran, Ferhan Onat in a
relatively short period.
The real ballet
education with the support of the government in Turkey had stared in 1948 The
Turkish Government had invited the world wide famous choreograph and founder of
British Royal Ballet Dame Ninette de Valois to Turkey in 1947 as a
consultant. With his preparation and leading, the first ballet school was
opened in Istanbul Yeşilköy. The school was transferred to Ankara in 1950 and
become a section of the Government Conservatoire. The school had his first
graduates in 1957 and participated to the opera studies. As the first
performance, they had displayed El Amor Brujo (For the charming love) ballet
of Manuel de Falla in 1960. They had performed the three screen Coppelia
ballet with succession in the following season.
The ballet society had displayed major improvements in
the following years. Some long ballets like Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake and
Silvia from the classical ballet repertory and some modern ballets like Les
Patineurs, Le Rendez-Vous, Prince of Pagoda were performed.
Some ballets created by foreign choreographs over the
music of Turkish composers are performed: like Çeşmebaşı ( Near the Fountain)
(Ferit Tüzün), Hançerli Hanım (Lady with Dagger) (Bülent Tarcan), Sinfonietta
(Nevit Kodallı) ballets. The first ballet of a Turkish choreograph Sait
Sökmen named Çark (Wheel) had been performed with the string quartet of
The ballet education and the performances are frequented
in modern Turkey.
ECONOMY OF TURKEY
A new and extensive economic program has
been initiated by the beginning of 2000 and this program has been in progress
in Turkey, in order to decrease the inflation and to reassure the improvement
medium in economic field in Turkey. In the contents of this economic program,
besides the applications of a severe financial policy and the execution of
extensive structural reforms, in order to descend the high inflation
expectations rapidly, the exchange values are pre - determined according to
the aimed inflation and expressed beforehand and the cash policy had been set
to a spectrum in which the liquidity expansion is dependant on foreign
At the application of the program, important steps are
taken in the field of structural reforms and to decrease or limit the public
losses. At the coverage of the structural reforms, the social security system
encountering major losses for long periods are rearranged and important steps
were taken in order to obtain the balance between the actives and passives of
the system. The first interference of direct income support system in the
field of agriculture had been taken and the trials at the pilot areas were
resulted in affirmative outcomes and the credit interest rates were
determined according to the resource costs. By the foundation of Banking
Supervision and Arrangement Association as a result of the reform in
financial sector, it is planned and aimed to gather the activities of
supervision, arrangement and surveillance of the banking sector under a sole
authority. Regarding the privatization activities, 51 percent of the
Petroleum Office sold as a block and 31.5 percent of TÜPRAŞ was sold by the
public submission in the year 2001. Besides, the income obtained from the
cellular phone license sales were higher than expected.
MONEY AND BANKING
The Central Bank which
is in charge of directing the cash policies in Turkey is also responsible
from arranging the cash demand, crediting other private or government banks,
forming the tools of cash policy and determining the exchange values. The
exchange rates originate in the free market conditions under the supervision
of the Central Bank. The Undersecretariat of Treasury plays an important and
major role in the policies of the Central Bank. This institution especially
assists the directing and executing of the banking system.
The financial policies executed in the period following
1980 had canceled the limiting arrangements present in the sector and by this
fact, the competition medium was improved. Liberal policy applications as
facilitating the income and outcomes of local and foreign banks and lifting
the limitations at the interest rates were initiated. The share of the
banking sector among the financial sector could be expressed above 70 percent
and if the Central Bank is included inside this banking sector, this amount
could reach up to 90 percent. The banks acting inside Turkey had rapidly
diversified their customer services, had entered into a technological
competition medium and directed towards the electronic banking in order to
ascend the quality of their service.
1963, the basic aims of the five year planned periods were determined as
" high growth rates" and " structural alterations in the
aspects of industrialization" The adopted industrialization strategies and the applied
financial policies display major alterations in the periods before and after
1980. The applied policies during and after 24 January 1980 Economic
Stability Program had variations when compared to the preceding stability
programs executed in every 8 - 10 years and this program reflects more
fundamental alterations in the economic and industrialization policies.
Therefore, radical variations were applied to the cash, finance, foreign
trade and exchange rate policies and instead of " import installation
oriented - devoted to local market" industrialization, a transformation
in the direction of " based on export - devoted to foreign markets"
industrialization had been initiated and executed.
After the period following 1980, the support of the
industrial sector had been concentrated in the level of production and the
foreign capital incitements were increased. This structural alteration in the
industry sector had been tried to be applied by increasing the intermediate
and investment production at the production industry. Highway vehicles, non -
electronic machinery and metal property production are among the first lines
of investment properties and in the production of intermediate products, the
major share was taken by petroleum and iron - steel products. And in
addition, the importation of the intermediate and investment products were
greatly facilitated. Therefore, the usage of new technologies and modern
marketing methods required by the industry spread inside the country.
Especially after the second half of the 1980s, the
governments had planned and executed the "construct - manage -
transfer" model, in order to accelerate the infrastructure investments
at industry sector and to cover the resource requirements in more convenient
conditions. When capital market is taken into account, the necessary pre -
conditions to divert small possessions to industry were arranged precedencely
and the Capital Marketing Committee was founded by a law issued in 1981. Parallel
to these precautions, the banking services were modernized and in order to
accelerate the international operations necessary legal arrangements were
realized. Great importance was paid to improve transportation and
communication services which are counted as prerequisites of
The primary energy
sources used as energy consumption in Turkey could be counted as charcoal,
lignite, petroleum, natural gas, hydrologic and geothermal energy, wood,
animal and plant churns and in addition to these primary sources, solar
energy is also used. The electrical energy and the coke coal is utilized as
secondary energy sources. The studies for benefiting nuclear energy is still
in progress. In order to cover the increasing energy requirement and the
expanses of investments required by energy sector in intermediate and long
terms, the increasing role of private sector is understood and studies
concerning about the participation of private sector by the side of governmental
resources is initiated and the privatization studies in the electric sector
had been accelerated.
Turkey is a
extremely rich country when the variation of mineral deposits and reserves
are taken into account.
Today, production of 53 different mineral deposits and
mines are realized in the mining sector in Turkey. The mineral and mine
production in the public sector is heavily directed to the fuels and metallic
ores as the private sector is concentrated to the production of industrial
minerals. The annual average production of charcoal is above two and a half
million tons. The only organization producing charcoal is Turkey Charcoal
Association General Directorate and this association continues its activities
in five establishments by the method of underground mining. The lignite ore
deposits are encountered in nearly all regions of Turkey. Turkey is the
seventh country of the world in lignite reserves and at the sixth order in
the production process. The assistance of the lignite mining to economy is
basically in the field of energy production. The lignite and unrefined
petroleum production in the sector covers approximately 60 percent of the
total production. Also enterprises concerning the search and production for
petroleum in foreign countries is realized. In this concept, although
limited, petroleum production studies in the common determined fields at
Egypt and Khazakistan is still in progress.
As Turkey is a very
convenient country for growing and harvesting agricultural products because
of the geographic and climate conditions are taken into account, Turkey is
one of the rare countries which is self sufficient in the production of
agricultural products and foodstuff. The growth increase in this sector is
accelerated rapidly after the application of the planned period initiated in
1963 and the annual growth rate is calculated for long terms is realized as
average 3.3 percent. The same rate is above the average annual population
increase (2.2 percent) in the same period. The increase in the production was
greatly dependent on the increase of planting fields and the increase in the
number of the animals used before the planned period. However, the increase
after 1963is relevant with the positive improvements in the agricultural
technologies and inlet usage and therefore the increase in the productivity.
The productivity increased in time relevant with the production improvements
as secondary production, improvement of production method, usage of chemical
fertilizers, agricultural drugs, irrigation, artificial seeding, bait and the
number of the breeding animals and mechanization. The positive activities of
the private sector in the purchase of seeds after 1990 is an important factor
effecting the increase of the productivity of the vegetal products Again in
the same period major successions were obtained in the live stock breeding
field by usage of artificial intercourse increasing productivity and in the
contention with the animal diseases and detrimental.
The infrastructure facilitation supplied by the
government in the field of irrigation and soil processing assisted the
positive improvement of agriculture in Turkey in recent years. As an example,
after the completion the Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP) in the 21st
Century, it would be possible to irrigate 1.7 million hectares of
agricultural field of the 3.1 million hectares present in the region.
Therefore the variety of the agricultural products would increase and
according to this fact with the new technologies installed to the developing
agriculture oriented industry in the region would increase the competition
power of the regional economy both in inner market and foreign market.
The portion of the agriculture sector value added tax in
the gross domestic production had decreased to 17 percent with current prices
in 1998, as this portion vas determined to be 26.1 percent in 1980. The
portion in the civil employment is about 45 percent. The decrease of the portion
of the agricultural sector in the gross domestic production do not definitely
mean that the productivity of the agricultural sector is decreased. As a
result of the concentration on industrialization policies employed in Turkey,
the portion of the industrialization in the gross domestic production had
increased. Therefore parallel to the improvements in the industry sector new
and modern technologies are started to be used in agriculture sector and new
management understandings have developed. The export of the agricultural
products in 1998 had exceeded five billion dollars.
26 percent of
Turkey is covered by the forest regimes. The area covered by fine quality and productive forests form
only a very low ratio of 13 percent. The productive forest area per person in
the country is 0.14 hectares.
The average annual wood production in the forestry
sector by public and private sectors is approximately 29 million m3 .
Approximately 68 percent of this wood production is used as fuel wood. In
order to cover the inner market demands, important amounts of wood is
imported every year starting from 1985.
As the surface area
of Turkey is wide, three borders are surrounded by seas and as Turkey is a
passageway country between Asia and Europe, the transportation sector holds a
major importance in the economy of the country. The transportation sector in
Turkey is composed of land, sea, air, railroad and pipeline transportation
activities. The studies concerning the improvement and coordination of inland
and foreign services of the transportation sector is supervised and executed
by the Ministry of Transportation. Parallel to the new developments, studies
of founding a new separate sub unit in charge of coordination between the
organizations acting at the transportation sub sectors under the control of
the Ministry of Transportation is in progress. The number of employment in the
transportation sector which assists the development of Turkish economic
conditions had exceeded on five hundred thousand employees by the year 1998.
21.7 percent of the total stable investments by the public sector is realized
to the transportation sector in 1998. The transportation sector, with the
communication sector, forms approximately 14 percent of the gross domestic
production of Turkey.
At the inland freight transportation, highways hold the
majority with the proportion of 87.4 percent. This proportion is 5.5 percent
in railroad transportation, 5.3 percent in sea transportation and 1.8 percent
in pipeline transportation. 95 percent of the inland passenger transportation
is done by highways.
The communication activities
had become one of the basic service sectors of economy in Turkey. The
telecommunication, radio, television and information networks which provide
fast, cheap, qualified and secure services in the free competition medium of
the country. The studies concerning the arrangement, installation and
improvement of these networks in order to provide unification with the modern
world and adaptation to the information age are still in progress. Especially
in the years following 1980, the information and communication technologies
installed in the most advanced countries of the world are brought to Turkey
and presented to the usage of the public. In order to make the required
communication services more effective as a necessity of the era, mail and
telecommunication services were separated from each other and Mail Services
General Directorate and Turk Telecommunication Inc. entered into service
separately. The studies concerning the privatization of Turk Telecom had been
accelerated. In the field of mobile cellular phone communication system, four
private phone operators, Turkcell, Telsim, Aria and Aycell were licensed.
EDUCATION OF TURKEY
The responsibility of executing Turkish National
Education in accordance with the basic principles and in the name of the
government is charged to the Ministry of National Education.
The central organizations of the Ministry as the
ministry position, Council of Educational Policy, the main service units,
information and supervision units are shaped in accordance with the sub
service unit hierarchy.
The National Education System determined by the law is
executed in two main basic movements called "Normal Education" and
The Normal Education: This method
of education is the education executed regularly under the roof of school
with the objectively prepared programs to the individuals with the determined
age group and equals and includes the associations of pre - school, primary
school, senior school and high school.
The pre - school period education; This education is not
obligatory and dependent on the will and includes the children of the 3 - 5
age group that do not reach to the period of obligatory education age in
order to create a common environment for the children for preparation for
The primary education covers the education of the
children between the ages of 6 - 14 for an eight year continuous period, is
obligatory for each citizen, the education at the state schools are not
charged and the graduates receive a primary education diploma.
The senior education covers the entire general,
professional and technical institutions having minimum three-year education
period and is dependent on the primary education. Besides the deliverance of
minimum common culture values, the students are prepared for the higher
education where the education should be directed to their interests, skills
The higher education is dependent on the senior education
and covers the totality of the education institutions executing the higher
education for a minimum period of two years. These institutions could be
counted as universities, faculties, and institutes, high schools and
application and research centers.
The higher education executed at these institutions is
arranged in an integrity scope instructing the students at levels of
associate arts and bachelors degree and Bachelor of Science degree.
Common Education: The common
education aims the execution of the education according to the demands of the
citizens whom are never been educated or left or remained at any level of
education and covers the all of the activities arranged with or without the
Normal education. The common education could be classified as education of
the folk, apprenticeship education and abroad education.
Following the academic year of 1999-2000, the number of
the schools according to their ranks of the education institutions is 65 905
and the number of the students is 15 727 929 and the number of the teachers
is 532 595.
The total number of the students educating in the higher
education institutions (1999-2000 academic year, together with the official
universities and cognizant universities) is 2 millions 788 thousand and 252.
430 thousand and 219 of this total number is registered students of associate
of arts, 2 million 358 thousand and 033 is the registered students of the
bachelors degree. The total number of the academic personnel and education
staff at the mentioned universities for the same year is 125 thousand and
345. 433 thousand and 380 of this number states the academic personnel and
the remaining 81 thousand and 965 of this number states the other various
The Organization at Foreign Countries serves the
citizens accommodating in foreign countries with 39 agencies; 21 education
consultancies and 18 education representatives.
The number of the Turkish students educating at the
normal education institutions at 1999 -2000 academic year in foreign countries
is 867 thousand and 095. The total number of the students educating in
foreign countries with official or private sponsorship is 29 thousand and
196, 21 thousand and 282 of which are attending the bachelor's degree, 5
thousand and 458 of which are attending to master degree and 2 thousand and
456 of which are attending to doctor degree.
And in the scope of the cooperation with the Central
Asian Republics and Turkish Communities in the field of education initiated
by the Ministry of the National Education, the Ministry had constructed 12
schools and education centers at Central Asian Republics, six of which
educate in Turkish Language applied in Turkey. There are 246 teachers
educating 3 thousand and 721 students at this centers and schools. In accordance
with the quota granted to these Republics, there are 8 thousand and 064
students educating in Turkey.
Turkey had signed educational, scientific and cultural
agreements with 71 foreign countries and relevant studies are still executed.
As education is visualized as the major element of the
economic, technologic and social improvement in Turkey, education sector is
among the most prior sectors among the government and improvement plans.
Therefore, the Major Education Plan covering the years between 1996-2010 was
prepared and the flexibilization of the education which could answer the
individual, national and international demands and by the assistance of the
attained means, it was planned to reach to the high intellectual level.
Therefore, the belief of training more Turkish people, which could assist the
culture and technology of the world, strengthens each day.
INSTITUTIONS EDUCATING FOREIGNERS WITH
TÖMER (Turkish Language Education, Research and Application
Center), was founded in connection with the Ankara University Presidency in
1984. Its objectives are to teach Turkish in and outside the country,
establish sections in order to introduce Turkish Language and culture; to
teach Turkish language to foreigners, foreign accommodating citizens and to
each individual willing to learn our language; research and develop programs
and improve methods at the subject of educating Turkish as native tongue and
to cooperate with various local and foreign associations and institutions.
The Turkish courses are delivered at the sections of TÖMER present in Ankara,
Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Bursa and Trabzon provinces
The Education Program
The Education Programs of TÖMER are arranged in 7
1. Basic Turkish I 2. Basic Turkish II 3. Intermediate Turkish I 4. Intermediate Turkish II 5. Advanced Turkish I 6. Advanced Turkish II A 7. Advanced Turkish II B
BASIC TURKISH I - II
These courses are devoted to cover the daily live
requirements of the students.
INTERMEDIATE TURKISH I - II
This course includes programs devoted to the
communication of the students with individuals having the native tongue of
Turkish. Also, the students have reach to the level of understanding some
plain texts, newspaper articles and current news.
ADVANCED TURKISH I - II A - B
These courses include the education with the texts
quoted from the samples of the Turkish Literature and from the newspapers and
journals. The subjects stating the Turkish culture and Turkey are presented.
The proverbs and the idioms are explained. After the end of the courses, the
students are capable of higher education with Turkish language.
The Registration Approval Terms
The course programs of TÖMER are determined at least one
year before the education. The participants can apply personally or by mail
and register to any course program at a convenient period. The "TÖMER
Course Acceptance Card" is delivered to the participants paying the fee
of the course from foreign countries. According to this certificate, the
student should deliver the application form and attached bank certificate
indicating that the course fee of 100 US dollars is paid to the Central
Section of TÖMER. The remaining part of the course fee is paid to the TÖMER
Registrar's Office at the registration procedure by the student self and in
Necessary Documents for Registration
Documents Required by Foreign Students:
1-4 Photos 2-Copy of the Passport 3-TÖMER Course Acceptance Card 4-Toursit or Student visa
Documents Required by Turkish Students:
1-1 Photo 2- Course fee 3- Student ID for students and business certificate for
The ending of the Course
TÖMER applies certificate and diploma examinations at
the end of the each course period either in the center or in the sections.
The students completing the courses of Basic Turkish I -
II, Intermediate Turkish I - II, Advanced Turkish I are applied an
examination and the successors had gained the right to be awarded by a certificate.
The students completing the Advanced Turkish II course gain the right to be
awarded by the diploma after succeeding the examination of Advanced Turkish
II Diploma Examination.
The Ankara University approved diplomas of TÖMER are
valid among all of the universities and higher education institutions.
The students that fail the certificate and diploma
examinations are rewarded by the Course Participation Certificate.
The Visa Procedures
The students who are willing to learn Turkish from TÖMER
have to pre-register to the courses and receive "TÖMER Course Acceptance
Card". The students have to apply to the Turkish embassies in their
countries together with the mentioned course acceptance certificate
personally and the other necessary documents. However, the TÖMER Course
Acceptance Certificate does not guarantee the approval of visa application.
TÖMER assists the students at the subject of accommodation permission in
Applications in Foreign Countries
Province: Ankara Section: TÖMER Center Address : Ziya Gökalp cad. No:18/1 Kızılay
-Ankara-Turkey Tel :00.90.312.4358405-4350514 Fax :00.90.312.4359786 Internet :http://www.tomer.ankara.edu.tr e-mail :firstname.lastname@example.org
Bank Account Numbers
T.C. ZİRAAT BANKASI Name of the Branch :Ankara Tandoğan Branch Branch Code :1282 Account No:900009 Swift Code: TCZB TR2AAANK
The courses are in the form of 4 and 8-week semesters. A
course program is completed in each period. An 8-week course period contains 160
course hours. The 4-week courses are the concentrated summer courses and
contain total 80 hours. The necessary education period in order to obtain the
diploma is 12 months. Beside the total 960 hours of courses, the students
should separate minimum 8 - 10 hour studies in order to prepare to the course
and finish their home assignments. The classes are distributed as morning,
afternoon, evening and weekend. The summer courses are also separated as
morning, afternoon and evening classes.
Winter Period Courses
Morning Courses: Each Day Among The Days of the Week 160 Hour 8 Week
09.00-12.50 640 $ Monday, Wednesday, Thursday 96 Hour 8 Week 09.00-12.50
Afternoon Courses: Each Day among the Days of the Week 160 Hour 8
Week14.00-17.50- 640 $ Monday, Wednesday, Thursday 96 Hour 8 Week14.00-17.50
Evening Courses: Each Day Among The Days of the Week 80 Hour 8 Week
18.00-19.50 320 $
Summer Period Courses
Each Day Among The Days of the Week 80 Hour 4 Week
09.00-12.50 320 $ Each Day Among The Days of the Week 80 Hour 4 Week
14.00-17.50 320 $ Each Day Among The Days of the Week 80 Hour 4 Week
18.00-21.50 320 $
8 Week Courses
07 February - 04 April 2000 10 April - 02 June 2000
4 Week Courses
07 January - 03 January 2000 06 March - 07 April 2000 10 April - 05 May 2000 08 May - 02 June 2000 05 June - 30 June 2000 03 July - 28 July 2000 31 July - 25 August 2000 28 August - 22 September 2000 02 October - 27 October 2000 30 October - 24 November 2000
TÖMER proposes various accommodation alternatives to
students. The TÖMER authorities execute the settlement of the students to the
dormitories or hotels at the minimal distances from TÖMER sections. In clean
and comfortable rooms, the students can find most of their daily requirements
such as breakfast and dinner and daily hot water. The students are provided
accommodation at the private dormitories during winter season, and at the
Ankara University Vehbi Koç Student Dormitory during the summer season. As a
second alternative, students can stay with the families, which are elected by
TÖMER with fussiness. The accommodation with a family could assist the
student at the sharing of the culture and in learning the daily language. The
third alternative is the hotels, which TÖMER assists to its students. The
fees of the hotels display variations according to the service provided and
being in a major province. For example, accommodation in a two star hotel for
a single night would cost between 50 - 70 $; and the cost of a five star
hotel would be approximately between 100 - 130 $.
Students of TÖMER should have their lunch at the terrace
cafeteria of TÖMER for the cost of 1 $.
Address of the Dormitory
Vehbi Koç Student Dormitory Mustafa Kemal Bulvarı N0: 75 Maltepe / ANKARA
GEOGRAPHY OF TURKEY
Because of the location, Turkey is not
only a passageway from which the ancient Asian Turkish culture is transmitted
to the Europe, but also counted as a window of Western Culture opening to meet
the Eastern Culture. Turkey is surrounded by Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and
Aegean Sea brings the country to the neighborhood of the whole world, not
only to the neighborhood of the nearby regions. Because of these long coastal
borders and being a bridge between the continents of Asia and Europe, Turkey
had been the center of the major commerce and immigration roads.
Turkey is located between Europe and Asia continents and
displays the view of a rectangle generally. The region with the size of 790 thousand
and 200 km2 are located at the Anatolian Peninsula which could be called as
Little Asia, and the remaining region with the size of 24 thousand and 378
km2 is located at Thrace, which is located at the east of Balkan peninsula.
The total surface area covered is 814 thousand and 578 km2. With its shores,
which are at the length of 8 thousand and 272 kilometers, Turkey is a naval
country located at the middle of the most ancient main continents of the
The First Geography Summit gathered in Ankar
a at 1941 has separated Turkey into seven
major geographic regions after a long and hard study. The first four of this
seven pre - determined regions are named by the neighboring seas (Black Sea
Region, Marmara Region, Aegean Region and Mediterranean Region). The
remaining three regions are named in accordance with their geographic
locations inside the total Anatolia (Central Anatolia Region, Eastern
Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia Region).
Turkey is counted as a high
country as the mountains cover the majority of the surface, however various
plains such as lowlands, plateaus and sediment areas also cover a high ratio.
This property diversifies the encountered climate types and also effects the
order of the settlements and the economic conditions. Turkey had been
separated into seven major geographic regions in accordance with the factors
like climate, natural plantation and the distribution of the agricultural
activities. These seven major geographic regions are as follows:
Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, Marmara Region, Black Sea Region,
Central Anatolia Region, Eastern Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia
As the majority of Turkey is covered with mountains, the
major mountain chains present at the northern and southern regions generally
draws wide arches, which are parallel to the shore. The mountains at the
north are the Northern Anatolia Mountains and the mountains at the south are
the Toros (Taurus) Mountains . These mountain chains are separated from each
other by the wide plain areas, which are at the central parts of Anatolia.
The mountain chains become frequented at the eastern parts of the country and
form high altitude peaks. The altitude at the Western part decreases.
Mountain chains are uncommon in Aegean and Marmara Regions, this regions
mostly display the property of being hollow. There are wide plains in
Southeastern Anatolia, as displayed in the central parts of the country,
because this region is far from the reach of the expansions of the Toros
(Taurus) Mountain chain. The highest mountain of Turkey is Great Ağrı
Mountain (5137 meters) and Süphan Mountain which is an extinct volcano is
located inside the borders of Eastern Anatolia Region. Karacadağ, Raman and
Sof Mountains are the major mountains of Southeastern Anatolian Region.
There are numerous rivers in Turkey. The majority of the
rivers are used in the energy production processes. Fırat and Dicle rivers
flowing in Eastern Anatolia reaches and joins with the Basra Gulf,
Yeşilırmak, Kızılırmak and Sakarya rivers flowing in Central Anatolia reaches
and joins with Black Sea, Susurluk Creek in west and Biga and Gönen creeks
reach and join with Marmara Sea; Gediz, Big and Small Menderes rivers reaches
and joins with Aegean Sea.
The total surface area of the lakes in Turkey reaches up
to 9200 km2 . Eastern Anatolia Region is the richest region of Turkey when
the number of lakes are taken into consideration. The biggest lake of Turkey,
Van Lake (3713 km2) and Erçek, Çıldır and Hazar lakes are located inside this
region. The biggest lakes of Central Anatolia Region are mostly shallow and
contain salt in high amounts. The second biggest lake of the country, Tuzgölü
(Salt lake) (1500 km2) and Akşehir and Eber lakes are inside the borders of
this region. The ferry transportation is executed on Van lake.
Marmara and the Straits are the most important water
passages connecting Black Sea to the outer world. Marmara Sea, which is
located totally inside the national borders is connected to the Black Sea by
Istanbul Bosphorus and is connected to Aegean Sea and Mediterranean by
Çanakkale Strait. The Aegean and Western Mediterranean shores of Turkey are
generally intended and there are numerous gulfs on these shores.
CLIMATES OF THE REGIONS
Turkey is located at the south of the
medium climate zone when the geographical location is taken into
consideration and is under the effect of "Mediterranean Climate", which
is a type of subtropical climate in which the summer season passes dry.
The Mediterranean climate is encountered among the
shoreline in which the summer season is hot and dry and winter season is warm
and precipitant. Burdur and Isparta provinces behind the Toros (Taurus)
Mountains to the west are the transition region between the Mediterranean
climate and terrestrial climate. It is possible to swim in Mediterranean
Region for the duration of 7 months ( Starting from the beginning of May
until the end of October.)
The Mediterranean climate is encountered among the
shoreline. The climate hardens when moved towards the inner regions. At these
regions, the terrestrial climate starts. The swimming season in Aegean Sea
is 4-5 months (Between June and end of October ).
The winter season is extremely cold. The frost events and
snow precipitation is frequently encountered. The drought situation of
summer season is lesser when compared with Mediterranean. The swimming
season in Marmara Sea is 3 months (Between June and end of August).
Sometimes it is possible to swim in sea in September
The Black Sea climate, which is precipitant in all
seasons is separated into three types. In Eastern Black Sea Region
(Trabzon, Rize) the precipitation is at the highest value, the summer season
temperature is high and the winter season temperature is warm. In Central
Black Sea Region, (Ordu) the precipitation is respectively in lesser
values. It resembles the Mediterranean climate. The Western Black Sea
Region (Zonguldak, Sinop) has low precipitation and the moisture ratio in
summer season is low. The season for swimming in Black Sea is between the
end of June until the middle of August.
The winter season is cold and the summer season is slightly
warmer than the drought encountered in the Mediterranean climate type. The
precipitation occurs in spring and autumn.
The severe terrestrial climate is encountered in Eastern
Anatolia and the winter season continues for a long period with snow and
frequent frost events. Summer seasons are chilly in respect to Southeastern
The steppe climate type is encountered and in the
summer season, very high temperatures are encountered. The drought is
extremely severe. The evaporation is dense and might reach to 1000-2000 mm.
or more yearly.
THE SEAS OF TURKEY
Three sides of Turkey are surrounded
by seas. The three seas out of the four, Black Sea, Aegean Sea and
Mediterranean Sea opens to Atlantic Ocean. Marmara Sea, connecting Black Sea
to Mediterranean is located inside the borders of Turkey.
Having the aspect of closed sea, the total length of
the shores of Black Sea is 1695 Kilometers, the deepest point is 2244
meters, and the surface area is 424.000 Km2 . As Black Sea displays "
longitudinally shore type", the shelf area is too steep and the depth
can reach to 1500 meters at short distances. As the evaporation is less and
the joining rivers are numerous, the ratio of salinity is less.
Average Salinity Ratio: 18 %, at the river
entrances: 15 - 16 %
Marmara Sea is a small inner sea between Black Sea and
Mediterranean Sea. The length of the shores are 1189 Km, and the depth is
760m-3500 m. Marmara Sea connects Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea to each
Average Salinity Ratio: 26 %
Aegean Sea is the sea having the longest and most
indented shores of Turkey. The length of the shoreline is 2805 km, and the
deepest point is 1000 m.
Ratio: 38 % in North, 39 % in South
It is the eastern part of actual Mediterranean Sea
located at the southern part of Turkey. The length of the shoreline is 1577
Km, the surface area is 2.890.000 km2.
HISTORY OF ANATOLIA AND TURKEY
PREHISTORIC AGES UNTIL THE END OF THE
Paleolithic Age ( 600.000 - 8000 B.C)
In this first civilization age, mankind began
to take progress and had been overlapped by the Glacier Period. During this
long period which nearly exceeds half million years, the mankind had not
started the production process yet and they are at the primitive stage
feeding by the natural sources, sheltering in the caves and tree trunks and
construct primitive hunting tools from the natural stones. It is possible to
find the traces of the Glacier Period in Anatolia. The Karain, Beldibi and
Belbaşı Caves, which are located in the vicinity of Antalya, were used by
mankind during the end of this period (BC 20.000 - 8000). Some of the
remnants and ancient works discovered in Karain, Beldibi and Belbaşı Caves
are displayed in the Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum and Karain Museum.
Neolithic Age ( 8000 - 5000 B.C)
Although mankind has learned to start fire and began to
reach the physical capacities of their descendants 40 thousand years ago,
they had attained the status which could be called civilized only twelve
thousand years ago after the beginning of the foundation of the permanent
settlements. The fact of permanent settlements had granted mankind the
possibility of storing properties and provisions. Numerous small settlements
founded in this age were discovered and brought into light at numerous
locations around the world. The two most advanced settlements among these
small settlements were the Hacılar and Çatalhöyük settlements located in
Central Anatolia, in the neighborhood of Konya Province. In Çatalhöyük
settlement, mankind was accommodating in adobe huts whose walls were
decorated by illustrations and colorfully embossed designs in BC 7th and 6th
thousands and adorn their rooms with colorful vases and miniatures
constructed from cooked soil. The majority of the miniatures resembled a naked
female goddess, the mother earth.. The stonemasons and other various
professionals were using tools made of obsidian, and the farmers had
cultivated wheat, barley and lentil at the crop fields plough by oxen. The
businessmen owned seals made from the cooked soil and the women had owned
mirrors made of polished obsidian.
The meal of the inhabitants of Çatalhöyük settlement was
not only composed of bread, vegetables and fruits, but also goat and sheep
meat was present. Domesticated and trained dogs protected their houses. An
exploding volcano was depicted on one the walls of a house, and this volcano
was probably Hasan Mountain. This illustration is the most ancient landscape
painting known in the history of art and is exhibited with the other above
mentioned foundlings in Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum. The museum
also hosts one of the rooms founded in Çatalhöyük, which is exhibited at the
original state and is known as "cult room".
Calcolithic Age (5000 - 3000 B.C)
The Calcolithic Age, which is also known as mine - Stone
Age, Anatolia encounters a standstill period. Although beautiful ceramic
samples are produced in this two thousand-year period, Anatolia had fallen
behind in development when compared with the civilizations in Egypt and
Bronze Age (3000 - 2000 B.C)
In this age period, bronze products obtained from the
composition of copper, zinc and tin have been produced and the civilization
in Anatolia begin to improve again respective to the previous age. The Troia
I settlement is the brightest and most advanced center of the early Bronze
Age (3000 - 2500 B.C) in Anatolia; but as the discovery of writing in Egypt
and Mesopotamia, Anatolia is accepted to be still behind the civilization
The development in Anatolia accelerates again in the
Intermediate Bronze Age (2500 - 2000 B.C) after a standstill period which
reaches nearly 2500 years. Although writing is not still in use, the Hatti
Civilization founded in Central and Southeast Anatolia and the Troia II
settlement in Northwest Anatolia are among the exceptional civilizations in
the scope of the world civilizations.
HATTI CIVILIZATION (2500 - 2000 B.C)
The remnants of the Hatti language, which we encounter
in the texts of Hittite Civilization, has its own special structure and do
not display any similarity with other language used at the very same age
Although the Hatti Civilization displays the effects of
Mesopotamia culture and civilizations, they represent a strong originality in
the fields of art and especially physical culture. The effects of Hatti
Civilization had influenced Anatolia for approximately two thousand years
which had demonstrated major riches in religion, tradition, mythology and
art. Therefore, Anatolia was called as the land of Hatti by the neighboring
civilizations reigning between BC 2500 - 700 years. Again because of the same
fact, the Hittites originated from Indo - Europe had mentioned Anatolia as
The land of Hatti in their written sources during their history. The meaning
of Cheta in the Old Testament was understood to be the folk accommodating in
Anatolia after the discovery and study of the Boğazköy tablets in the
beginning of the century.
The Hatti Civilization was composed of small governmental
states. These minor kings also bear the high priest title and assisted the
creation of very original works of art in their states. The samples of these
works of art were discovered in the region located in the curve of Kızılırmak
River like Alacahöyük, Horoztepe and Mahmatlar and resembled gods in the
shape of animals; the bulls depict god of storm, the deer depict his wife,
the goddess Vurushemu and the banners of the kings represent the Universium.
This universe symbol which generally stands at the tip of the horns of two
oxen is the source of the folk tale "the world stands at the tips of the
horns of an ox, and if the ox shakes his head, earthquake happens" which
is still told in the villages.
TROIA II SETTLEMENT (2500 - 2000 B.C)
The second major culture center of the Intermediate
Bronze Age in Anatolia is the above-mentioned Troia II settlement located in
the borders of Çanakkale. Schliemann executed the first excavation in Troia
and he had accidentally discovered a treasure composed of golden household
objects and various jewelry, which he named as the Treasure of Priamos. This
unique and wonderful treasure was taken to the Berlin Museum but
unfortunately this unique treasure was lost forever in the World War II.
Today, only a small but very important part of this famous treasure remained
in the Istanbul Museum. However, only beautiful galvanize copies of the lost
golden bowls are present in the museum.
Although H. Schliemann had greatly ruined and damaged
the city of Troia II at the excavation studies, today the entrance ramp, the
city walls and some sections of the large megarons are still standing at the
THE PERIOD OF HATTI - HITTITE CITY STATES (2000 - 1750
The Hittites have reached Anatolia among Caucasia by the
end of 3000 B.C during the great migration of the Indo - Europe nations
travelling towards the warmer countries from the Northern Europe. But this
migration of the Hittite tribes had occurred in the way of infiltration more
than invasion. The Hatti city-states were dominating Anatolia Region during
the period of the first quarter of BC second thousand while the Indo -
European originated city-states begin to be founded suddenly. The number of
the Hittite cities states begin to increase and by the 1750 B.Cthe Hittites
invaded Anatolia totally and founded the Hittite State.
HITTITE STATE (1750 - 1200 B.C)
As mentioned above, the Indo - Europe originated Hittite
tribes had entered Anatolia about 2000 B.C years had founded their first
kingdom near 1750 B.C and in the mids of 2000 B.C , they have founded The
Great Hittite Kingdom (Hittite Empire).
The Hittites founded one of the greatest states of Near
East in 15th and 14th Centuries B.C. In 13th Century B.C, they share the
dominance of the world with Egypt.
In 1875 B.C, there was a great battle between Hittites
and Egyptians at Kadesh, where the King of Hittites Muvattalli had used 3500
chariots which was the most powerful strike weapon of the age and defeated
the rival army. The text of the treaty which is written in the Hittite
Language signed between Hattuşili IV and Rhamsesis II is exhibited in the
Istanbul Archeological Museum. This document is the first political treaty
signed between the two major states in the history of the world.
The pin writing was in use in the city of Kanesh
(Kültepe in the vicinity of Kayseri) in 18th century B.C, which was one of
the first settlement centers of Hittites. The Hittite civilization also used
hieroglyphics (painted language), which was their invention for the
understanding of the common folk. Therefore, the historic age in Anatolia had
started with Hittites initially, 1000 years after Egypt and Mesopotamia.
We have mentioned above in the Hatti section that the
Hittites had mentioned Anatolia as "the Land of Hatti" like
Mesopotamians and the Chetans stated in the Old Testament have been
originated from the Hatti language. During the decryption of the Hittite
language, the philologists had accidentally named this Indo - Europe
originated nation as Hittites instead of Nesi because they encounter the name
Hatti frequently and they are also inspired from the Old Testament. The
Hittites are called "Hititler" in Turkish, "die
Hethister" in German, "Les Hitites" in French and " Gli
ititi " in Italian. In Turkish, the Hittites were used to be called with
the word "Eti".
The Hittites were influenced from the Hatti civilization
in all aspects of the culture and civilization. Their religion, mythology,
tradition, costoms and in all fields of culture and art were influenced from
Hatti and they have obtained the names of gods, rivers and cities from Hatti
civilization. For example, the name of the Hittite capital Hattuşa is
originally from Hatti language and is derived from Hattuş. Hattuşili, which
is the name of the 4 major kings of Hittites are originated from the same
Although being majorly influenced from the cultures of
Hatti and Mesopotamia civilizations, the Hittite culture displays interesting
characteristics. The temples display original properties and the city walls
are unique in the world with the characteristic of possibility to counter
attack the enemy while protecting the defense position. Although the
figurative art of the Hittites display the influence of Mesopotamian culture
from the iconographic view, they have created an original and interesting
The Hittite State was the only state in Near East in
which the women had important social rights and the human rights were under
the protection of the laws.
This civilization was founded nearly in the same period
with the Hittites in the Eastern Anatolia Region and is reigned by a royal
Indian family. Mitannis used the language of Hurri. This language forms a
unique language group and is used by the Urartus (900 - 600 B.C) which are
encountered in the first period of 13th century. The Hittites were majorly
effected by the Hurri civilization in the 13th century.
Troia VI Civilization (1800 - 1275 B.C )
A kingdom had founded and developed the advanced Troia
VI Civilization in Çanakkale, which was in the same period with the Great
Hittite Kingdom. The nation forming this civilization was relatives of
Mykens, and the settlement was the city of Illion stated in the epic of Ilias
by Homer. The city walls and the megarons of the Troia VI was well preserved
and forms one of the most valuable place of visit of Turkey. The important
ceramic remnants discovered in the excavations of Troia are exhibited in
Istanbul Archeological Museum.
"THE AEGEAN MIGRATION" AND THE INVASION OF
ANATOLIA BY BALKAN NATIONS (1200 B.C) As a result of the "Aegean Migration" occurred
in 1200 B.C, the Indo - European nations from Balkans had primarily destroyed
Troia VI and later Hattuşa and caused the removal of this two original
cultured states from history. After 1200 B.C, because of the destruction of
the two advanced civilizations, the usage of writing had ceased existence and
Anatolia had regionally retreated to the poorly cultured level for 300 - 400
years. The hand made rude ceramic works discovered in the Troia 7b1 section
and the Buckelceramic obtained from the Troia 7b 2 section belong to the
above mentioned Balkan nations and are exhibited in Istanbul Archeological
At the first period of the 1000 B.C, in the Iron Age
(1200 - 700 B.C), Anatolia peninsula was under the reign of various sized
city states of various nations as is was in the first quarter of 2000 B.C.
The Southeast Anatolia and some regions of Syria was dominated by Late
Hittites, Eastern Anatolia was under the dominance of Urartus who are the
continuance of Hurri state, Central Anatolia was under the dominance of
Phrygia, Lydians and The Southwestern Anatolia was under the dominance of
Karians and Lykians.
LATE HITTITE CITY STATES (1200 - 700 B.C)
The late Hittites have settled in Southeast Anatolia and
North Syria of the present day and had majorly continued the Anatolian
Hittite culture. The Late Hittites were influenced from the Babylonians,
Assurians, Arabians and Phoenician in time and had especially played an important
role in the development of the young Hellenistic art in the 8th and 7th
URARTU CIVILIZATION (900 - 600 B.C)
The Urartu Civilization was founded in the regions of
Van Region of the Eastern Anatolia, Iran and Russia of the present day. The language
spoken in the Urartu civilization was a dialect of Hurri language, which was
different than the languages of Sami, Indo - Europe and Hatti language. The
Urartus had expanded their kingdom to the shores of Syria in 8th century for
a short period and they had advanced mining and metalworking techniques. The
bronze works of Urartus were found in the provinces of Phrygia and Etrüsk
PHRYGIAN CIVILIZATION (750 - 300 B.C)
The Phrygians are one of the Balkan originated nations
entering Anatolia after the destruction of Troia VI. But they had firstly
appeared as a political community after 750 B.C and had reached to the level
of a strong kingdom dominating Central and Southeast Anatolia in the period
of Midas (725 - 675 B.C). Phrygians had become a nation of Anatolia in a
respectively short period and had been majorly influenced from the late
Hittite and Hellenistic cultures, but they were able to develop an original
culture understanding. The metal and wood works and the textile products were
used as models in the Hellenistic world. The Phrygians are the inspiration
source of Hellens in the field of music.
LYDIAN CIVILIZATION (700 - 300 B.C)
The language of the Lydians is originated from the Indo
- Europe origin but displays the elements of the native Anatolian languages
before 2000 B.C . Although they had occasionally conquered the Ion provinces
in 7th century B.C, they were majorly influenced from the Hellenistic
culture. But their structure skills had been approved and used by the Hellenistic
KARIAN & LYKIAN CIVILIZATIONS (700 - 300 B.C)
The Karian and Lykians display similar language
properties with the Lydians and speak a dialect originated from the Indo -
Europe origin but displays the elements of the native Anatolian languages. We
have very limited information about Karians. Besides, the wonderful and
beautiful stone tombs of Lykians standing in the Southwest Anatolia Region
are among the breath taking monuments of Turkey.
ION CIVILIZATION (1050 - 300 B.C)
As former İzmir excavation exposes, the Ion provinces
are founded around 1050 B.C. Ions had formed primitive agricultural
communities for 300 years, in the second half of the 8th century, the Ion
nation began to develop with the influence of Egypt, Phoenicia, Assur and
Hittite centers and lived their most advanced period between 650 - 545 B.C.
The major importance of the Ion civilization in the
history of the world is that the primary rising of the free intellect and
free scientific researches were experienced in the cities founded by Ion
civilization. Especially the philosophers from the city of Miletos had
researched the nature and the natural events in a manner freed from the
religious rules and superstitious beliefs of the period. The nature
philosopher Thales, whose father was Karian Hexamies and mother was Helen and
thinkers like Anaximondros and Anaximenes had laid the first foundations of
the positive sciences like philosophy, mathematics, geometry and astronomy
based on the information they had gathered from Egypt and Mesopotamia with a
new free attitude. Thales, who had visited Egypt and Mesopotamia, had
calculated the date of a nature event, the eclipse of the sun in May 28,585
B.C for the very first time in the world depending on the information he had gathered
from the countries he had visited. This scientific determination was the
first step: the developments occurred in the Islam world by Arabs, Persians
and Turks between 9th and 12th centuries A.D and that had been the first
Renaissance movement. This was the first step of the scientific researches
that leaded to the conquest of moon by mankind founded in the Renaissance age
in Europe and later in the l9th and 20th century.
The Ionia was also the most important center of poetry
and art fields in the world at that age. The Arthemis Temple in Ephesos with
the dimensions of 55 x 110 meters had been totally constructed from marble
for the first time in the world and the Ion architecture structure had been
carried to Athens and had survived until the beginning of the 20th century as
an architectural structure which Europe and America found pleasure in
repetition of the style.
The beautiful and well preserved ruins of the Ion
architecture are standing in ancient cities of Bergama, Sardis, Ephesos,
Priene, Miletos, Didyma, Aphrodisiacs and Aizanoi. The statues of the Ion art
are under preservation in the Turkish Museum. Although the Ion vase artistry
is at the second place when compared to the creations of Greek culture, they
are unique with their lovely humor style.
THE PERSIAN DOMINANCE (545 - 383 B.C)
Anatolia was under the dominance of Persia until the
invasion of Anatolia by Alexander the Great in 6th century and the defeat of
Dara in 333 at Issos. After the total invasion of Anatolia by Persians, the
leadership of the Ion civilization in the world had ended. However as some of
the Persian governors acted like independent kings, worldwide art works were
created especially in Karia, Lykia and Propontis by the end of 5th century
B.C and in the 4th century. Among these, the Nereidler monument in Xanthos
and the Mausoleum in Bodrum could be counted. The architectural and statue
works of these two monuments are majorly exhibited in the British Museum and
some ruins and finding are present in Bodrum.
HELLENISTIC PERIOD (333 - 30 B.C)
As Alexander the Great had wiped the Persian invasion
from Anatolia and freed the Hellenic provinces from dominance, the Peninsula
once again become the leading place of the world art.. The cities like Assos,
Bergama, Magnesia, Ephesos, Tralleis ( Aydın ), Miletos and Didyma had gained
power again and the architectural works produced in these cities had effected
the Roman art.
THE ROMAN AGE ( 30 B.C- 395 A.D )
As the Romans had invented and developed the method of
joining the bricks with plaster and constructed wide volume structures as
aqueducts, vaults and domes and therefore created the first major engineering
works among the world. Although the primary major works were constructed
inside the country of Rome, Anatolia had become the country in which this new
construction technique had been successfully employed. Cities developed not
only at the Western and Southern Anatolian Regions, but also in various
locations inside the peninsula. There are monumental buildings like Agora,
Government Building, Gymnasium, Stadium, Theatre, Baths and Fountains inside
all of the cities and most of these buildings were constructed from marble.
Marble plaques covered the roads and there were caravansaries with pillars on
each side of the road. Therefore, the citizens were protected from sun and
dust in summer seasons and from cold and mud in winter seasons. Strong and
well-maintained roads and stone bridges connected all regions of the
peninsula to each other. There were milestones on the sides of the roads to
display the distances for the first time in the world. Especially during the
2nd century A.D, Anatolia was one of the most advanced states of the world
and the wealth, comfort and the beauty of its cities had reached to a level
which can challenge the cities of Rome itself. There are numerous picnics
sites preserved at a state of Roman age in West and South Anatolia and are
open for the visit of tourists.
BYZANTIUM CIVILIZATION ( 330 - 1453 A.D )
The Byzantium art was born in Anatolia at the end of the
Roman Period. At the end of the 3rd century A.D, as the Roman art had entered
in a period of degeneration in the fields of sculpture and architectural
ornamentation in the cities of the peninsula, the artisans of the early
Christianity period had granted a rebirth and a new meaning to these fields
of art. We can tell that, the early Christianity and Byzantium Period art
works are the expressionist interpretation of the late Roman art. The early
Christianity and Byzantium art is the new stage and development in the
Architecture field in the history of the World.
This new art style appearing in the cities of Anatolia
like Sardis, Ephesos, Aphrodisiacs, Hierapolis, Side, Perge, Antakya had
developed and reached to its cultured stage in the city of Constantinopolis,
which was founded by Emperor Constantine in 330 B.C,which is currently known
as Istanbul. The city of Constantinopolis had become the most important
culture and art center of the world for nearly two and a half century between
330 - 565 B.C. The early Christianity civilization had encountered its most
advanced period during the reign of Emperor Justinian ( 527 - 565 B.C). Aya
Sofya (Hagia Sophia) (532 - 539 A.D) which is a Central Domed Basilica is the
most important wonder of the Byzantium art and is one of the most important
and most famous art works of the World.
The Church of Aya İrini (6th and 8th century B.C), the
St. John basilica in Ephesos (Justinian Period) and the Church of Maria (4th
and 6th century B.C), the Alahan church in South Anatolia ( 5th and 6th
century A.D) are among the most important and well preserved religious
structures of Byzantium period. The Fethiye Mosque which was St. Mari
Pammakaristos Church (1310 A.D) and Kariye Mosque which was Chora church in
Istanbul are among the most important and well preserved religious structures
of the late Byzantium period. The walls joined with the multi-domed cover and
the three layered archways display a very harmonious sight.
The still standing ruins of the Tekfur and Laskaris
palaces and partially preserved city walls in Istanbul represents a
breath-taking spectacle with the multi colored brick works.
The ground tiles of the great Palace in Sultan Ahmet,
the wall mosaics of Aya Sofya, Fethiye and Chora churches are in high quality
and have unmatched beauty. The silver bowls discovered in the vicinity of
Finike in Southern Anatolia and other silver and gold embroidered objects are
the proofs of the advanced Byzantium jewelry.
THE SELJUK CIVILIZATION (1071 - 1300 B.C)
The first nation to settle and inhabit in the entire
Anatolia had been the Turks. Hittites, Frigs and the Greeks had been able to
settle in particular sections of the peninsula as the preceding nations. The
Persians (543 - 333 B.C) and later the Romans (30 B.C 395 A.D) had succeeded
in conquest of the entire Anatolia but they did not settle in entire
Anatolia, instead they hold the political control of the entire land.
The Turks had reached Anatolia by continuos raids from
Central Asia and by migration. The Turks had gained the sympathy of the
Anatolian nations, the majority of which are of Indo - European origin by
their administration based on tolerance. The citizens accepting the Islam
Religion had become Turks, so the native nations and the Turks began to fuse
with each other starting from 1071. Therefore, Turks have accepted the
ancient civilizations as the heritage of all humanity, not only as their
The Seljuks had developed a high-level tolerance culture
in accordance with the boundaries of the above-mentioned first Renaissance
movement developed in the Islam world in 9th -12th centuries A.Din the Ion
civilization section. Mevlana Celaleddin Rumî was teaching and writing about
a humanist point of view with a modern expression in 13th Century in the
Province of Konya and the value of his teachings is appreciated especially in
the current century. Medical studies and researches were executed at the
major hospitals founded in every Seljuk province and astronomic studies were
executed at the observatories.
As in the Roman Period, The Seljuks had connected
various regions of Anatolia which are separated from each other by mountain
chains and different climates by strong, well-maintained roads and stone
bridges. And the trade caravans could stay at the beautifully crafted and
constructed caravansaries, which are the bright artworks of architecture.
Although the Seljuks are greatly influenced from the
Arabic and Persian art and culture, they had developed an original
civilization. The originality of the Seljuk art is formed from the elements,
which they had carried together from their motherland, Central Asia. The
mausoleums are the monumental interpretations of Turkish tents transformed
into stone buildings. The tile crafting, metal and woodworking, art of
miniature greatly demonstrate the effects of Central Asia. The method of
curved carving is an original method used in Central Asia originating to
Turkish clan of İskit.
The Seljuks had granted appropriate volumes and adobes
to the structures of caravansaries, mosques, mausoleums and theological
schools relevant with the Anatolian climate. The Persian originated
monumental entrance gates are adorned with the beautiful representations of
Either these high entrance gates or their adornment
elements resemble the Gothic churches. The Gothic architecture structures
constructed with bricks in North Europe are of Seljuk origin and carried
among that distance after the Crusades. There are unpaired and unique Seljuk
structures in the cities Konya, Kayseri, Niğde, Sivas, Divriği, Amasya, Urfa
and Malatya. The art of the Seljuk civilization is present in Anatolia with
the selected samples of original tiles, metal and wood works.
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1299 - 1923)
Anatolia had been the power source of the great Ottoman
Empire, which had leaded the Islam world for six centuries. The Ottomans had
improved the culture and art of the Seljuk Turks and adapted new dimensions
to these facts. The Ottomans were inspired from the Byzantium architecture
and combined this inspiration with new progress and stages and therefore
granted one of the most authentic architecture styles to the history of art.
The Turkish art of construction had encountered a development
from the disorganized volumes of Seljukian Period towards an assembled
residence. In fact, the Turkish architecture had undergo a stage by stage
evolution of 300 years towards the assembled and gathered under a dome cover
construction style. The Seljuk theology schools in Konya, Karatay and the
Şehzade (prince) and Selimiye mosques represent this evolution.
The Yeşil Mosque in Bursa (1424) is also assembled under
two relatively large domes. However, the presence of a heavy wall between two
domes had definitely separated the interior section into two parts. Despite
this fact, this solution was the fist step for the space integrity. As a
matter of fact, the south dome of the Rumî Mehmet Paşa Mosque (1471) in
Istanbul and the Atik Ali Paşa Mosque (1497) in the vicinity of Çemberlitaş
had been transformed into semi - domes in order to remove the walls
encountered in the Yeşil Mosque and therefore instead of two separate rooms,
a single interior section was obtained. In fact, the two domed interior sections
had been decreased into a one and a half domed interior section, meaning that
the volume had been shrinked though the space integrity had been obtained.
This is the second major step.
When Sinan was in charge, he had found the Turkish art
of construction following this development line and he had carried this
evolution to its final stage. Besides the two semi - domes of Bayezit Mosque,
one is located in the south, and other is located in the north, we see four
semi domes in Şehzade Mosque (1548) one of each in the either direction.
Therefore, the sections excluded from the space integrity in the west and
east directions until that day had been assembled under the same space
If we consider the style of the mosques of the Turkish
architects following Sinan, we should say that these architects consider
Şehzade Mosque as the most important artwork of Sinan. Because, the works
like Sultan Ahmet Mosque (1616), Yeni Mosque (1663) and Fatih Mosque (1771)
are the reproductions of the Şehzade Mosque from the point of plan and style.
Therefore the apprenticeship work of Sinan had become the classical sample of
the Turkish Architecture. However Süleymaniye and Selimiye are so unique and
one-time monuments that no architect had dared to copy these artworks and
therefore preferred to employ the Şehzade Mosque as the sample to obtain the
space integrity objective.
Sinan had exposed the most successful and most
harmonious sample of central construction style in the world with Selimiye
Mosque. The increasing of the number of the supporting pillars from four to
eight and therefore shaping the structure in a way that it could be seen
exactly the same from each direction faced is an unmatched success of
Architect Sinan. Architect Sinan could not materialized this will in Şehzade
and Süleymaniye mosques. The four minaret of the mosque support this harmony
of masses. The excellence of the harmony of the inner and exterior view and
the beautiful and effective silhouette reaching up to the sky grants Selimiye
Mosque to be among the wonders of the world.
The architects of the Ottoman Empire produced marvelous
works of architecture and engineering with the construction of mausoleums,
theology schools, libraries, mansions, palaces, baths, commercial buildings
and especially aqueducts and bridges. The mansions are counted among the most
attractive structures of the world art. The Ottoman art of miniature carries a different meaning
from the other eastern miniature by the embroidered daily and historic
HISTORY OF THE REPUBLIC PERIOD
At the end of the World War I, the
empires were scattered and instead new nation - states were founded. After
the collapsing of the Ottoman Empire, The Republic of Turkey was founded as a
nation - state. At the presidency of Atatürk, The Government of Great
National Assembly had saved the land from the invasion of foreign forces with
the Independence War and with the Lozan Treaty the existence of the new
Turkish Republic was approved by the nations of the world.
The months following the Lozan Treaty had passed with
the preparations of a new political formation. In order to take the
leadership, the Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası (Partisi) (National Republic Party)
had been founded ( September 9,1923). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was appointed for
the presidency of the party. The military personnel who were in charge at the
Independence War and the senior bureaucrats were appointed for the
administration staff of the party. The party was defending the subjects like
continuance of the national strife in a civilian medium, the modernization of
the country and execution of the Western system, institutions and life style
which was chosen as a model. In order to shape the government according to
the democratic and modern facts declaration of Republic was realized in
September 29,1923. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who was the great and successful
leader of the national strife was elected to become the first President of
the Turkish Republic by a unanimous vote. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had appointed
İsmet İnönü as the first Prime Minister. Four months later, the caliphate
organization, which was not concordant with the principle of republicanism,
was removed and the members of the Ottoman Dynasty were deported from the country.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was fully aware that for the foundation of a modern
community, the religious and the governmental tasks should be separated from
each other, so he had realized the most important social deviation by the
principle of "secularism". As the caliphate organization was
removed, a series of severe reforms were realized at the associations bounded
to this organization. Major steps in the subject of the Women Rights were
realized. The marriage with several women was prohibited and the necessity of
legal marriage was obliged. The law for divorcement right by the court is
issued. Before most of the European countries, the women had attained the
rights of election and electing for the municipalities in 1930, village elder
committees in 1933 and TBMM in 1934. One of the major steps realized in the
path of modernization was executed in the field of Turkish language. A new
Turkish alphabet was prepared by the Ministry of National Education and the
law suggesting the usage of Latin letters was approved by TBMM in November
1,1928. The former weight and length measures were changed in 1931.
The "Law of Surnames" was issued in June
21,1934, and the founder of the Turkish Government and Republic Mustafa Kemal
had been granted the surname "Atatürk" by TBMM. He was now the
ancestor of the entire Turks.
The endeavors for creating a modern country on the basis
of secularism was reflected to the constitution level and with a modification
in 1928, the "the religion of the Turkish Republic is Islam" verdict
was removed from the constitution. In 1937, the verdict stating that the
Turkey is a secular government was inscribed in the constitution. Atatürk has
executed the evolutions under the leadership of the National Republic Party,
which was founded as a party representing the entire nation, and he had
inspired this evolutions and principles to the entire nation.
The Government of the Republic had adopted a model
primarily based on private enterprises in order to develop the collapsed
economy taken as a heritage but obliged to apply state control policy growing
A foreign policy depending on peace and the borders of
Milli Misak (National Borders) during the period of Atatürk. With the
application of a successful diplomacy, Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits
remained inside the national defense system (Montreux Treaty, 1936). With the
Balkan (1934) and Sadabad (1937) pacts, the amity policy displayed towards
the entire neighboring nations were widespread. Peaceful policies directed
towards Europe and the utilization of the international conditions had
allowed the reunification of Hatay, which was abandoned to the French before,
with the motherland.
With all of his dynamism, strong intuitions, ability to
truly calculate the power balances, the true evaluation of the inner and
foreign conditions, Atatürk had passed away in November 10,1938 leaving big
traces in the direction of the Western model behind. His descendant country
had adopted his principles.
After the death of Atatürk, İsmet İnönü was elected to
become the second President of the Turkish Republic. He was the "single
chief" of his period as the President of the Government and the
political party. He was in the service during the most depressed period of
the world and Turkey. During his Prime Minister service, he tried to resist
to the economic crisis of the world with the policy of state control. He
attempted to improve the industry by the assistance of Public Financial
Enterprises (KİT) and executed major reforms in this fact.
The most important achievement of İsmet İnönü was the
success to exclude Turkey from the World War II. His policies concerning this
fact were being executed in the ways of obtaining the balance between various
powers at the same time and the securing this situation of the country in
some directions. Turkey was invited to San Francisco Summit in March 5,1945
and was located among the countries founding the United Nations. Turkey had
not participated to the World Wear II but was affected in negative way.
İnönü was a farsighted man of politics, so he could not
be a mere spectator either to the winds of freedom and democracy starting to
blow in the world after the World War II or to the social reactions aroused
from the depressions of war. As a matter of fact, he talked about the
necessity of the "liberalization of the regime" in 1945. And later,
he vocalized "the necessity for an opposition party". From this
path he cleared he tolerantly watched the foundation of Demokrat Parti
(Democrat Party) from the CHP, and in 1950 DP had gained the governmental
power as a result of the countrywide elections.
DP who speaks in the favor of democracy and a liberal
economy had developed rapidly, managed to participate to the General Assembly
in1946 and to attain the power of government alone in the elections of May
14,1950. Thus the period of the single party in Turkey was ended and the
first change of power by the vote of nation was realized. DP had increased
the number of the votes in the 1954 elections, therefore riveted its status
of power. Although the votes of the party had greatly decreased in 1957, the
party had attained the status of power until 27 May 1960.
During his ten-year period of rulership, DP had brought
a significant vigor to the economy and the daily life of the community. The
economy expanded, the income of the people had increased and numerous
villages had attained the services like roads, infrastructure and
electricity. New cultivation fields were arranged, the mechanization in
agriculture field was initiated, there was a significant increase in trade
and major steps were taken in the field of Industry. The process of
transference of foreign and commerce capital to industry had started.
After 1954, the public support to the DP government
began to weaken and because of the political and economic factors in Turkey,
the Turkish Armed Forces had seized the power in the morning of May 27,1960.
The Adalet Partisi (Justice Party) which effected the
political life of Turkey between 1960 and 1970 was founded in February
11,1961. The retired full general Ragıp Gümüşpala was elected as the first
general chairman of the party. After the death of Gümüşpala in 1964, The
Government Water Processes Former General Director Süleyman Demirel was
elected to the position of the General Chairman. The government period of AP
between the years 1965 - 1971 was one of the brightest periods of Turkey in
economic, social and political aspects.
The student actions and movements initiated in France in
1968 and spread throughout the world had entered to the agenda of Turkey from
the first place by the end of 1960's. These student actions initially had the
characteristics of revolt against the education and examination system in
universities but would gain the political and ideological content afterwards.
The freedom medium of the 1960's ended with the March 12,1971 memorandum. At
the 1972 General Assembly, Ecevit and friends had stated their candidacy for
the party administration against the group of İnönü. After the succession of
the list of Ecevit, İnönü had resigned from the general director position,
deputy position and CHP membership. At the urgent assembly of the
extraordinary General Assembly, Ecevit was elected for the position of
General Chairman. A new period was started for CHP. In the 1973 elections,
CHP had gathered the highest vote amount. After long negotiations CHP General
Chairman Ecevit had established a coalition government with the Milli Selamet
Partisi (National Security Party) (MSP) displaying the Islamic movements.
Although this extraordinary coalition had resulted in some positive outcomes,
the effects of petroleum crisis occurring throughout the world had been
reflected to Turkey.
After the stroke of ENOSIS against the Makarios
government in Cyprus in 1974 June, Turkey was forced to use its rights of
guarantorship arising from the London Treaty and 1960 Cyprus Constitution and
had executed a military intervention against the island. In this period, the
economic problems become much heavier. The basic nutriment materials,
petroleum and gas were out of stock. The queues and the black market begin to
exist. Although the January 24,Decisions issued by the Demirel government had
positive consequences in the short term, the terror actions continued. In
order to continue the liberation and economic stability programs initiated
with the 24 January Decisions, the Anavatan Parti (Motherland Party) (ANAP)
was founded by the demand of power. The parties to participate the 6 November
1983 elections was ANAP, MDP and HP and ANAP was elected with the vote ratio
of 45.1 percent and attained the power alone. The first ANAP government was
founded in 13 December at the presidency of Turgut Özal.
ANAP had attained the power alone in the 1983 elections
under the presidency of Turgut Özal and continued the succession of being in
power in the 1987 elections. The most important characteristic of the Özal
Period was the transformation of the economy into a brand new direction with
the brave and resolute reforms. Özal had described this liberal
transformation as "Big Transformation", and in this transformation
the Law of Preserving The Value of the Turkish Money and the foreign exchange
regime was totally altered, the import and export policies become free, the
"free exchange rate system" in foreign exchange was adopted. A new
economic model granting priority to exportation replaced the "import
establishment" model, which is an economic model closed to the foreign
countries. The most important development in the foreign policy was the relative
improvement of the relations with the European countries. As a matter of
fact, the European Committee Consultation Council had accepted the
participation of Turkish parliamentary to this committee in May 1984. In
addition, Turkey had attained a neutral policy during the war of Iran and
Iraq and therefore the trade relations with these countries had improved in
positive way. The income obtained from export and tourism processes had
greatly increased in this period as a result of the increasing interaction of
Turkey with the countries of Middle East and Europe.
After the separation of the Soviet United Nations in
1991, Turkey had improved its relations with the recent Independent Central
Asian Republics as a result of the enterprises executed by President Özal and
the government. Therefore, the new horizons for Turkey of being a
"Regional government" had been set. The Black Sea Economic
Cooperation, which became an institution by a summit meeting in June1992 and
including the total area of Black Sea Basin as the Caucasia and Balkans had
increased the importance of Turkey in the Region. Turkey had also played an
important and active role in the subjects of Bosnia - Herzigova and Somali.
After the death of Turgut Özal in April 17,1993,
Süleyman Demirel was elected to the position of the President of the Turkish
Republic. As a result of the power of the coalition governments of various
political parties between the years 1993 - 2000 the political structure had
gained a new multi dimensional structure. After the formation of this
particular new political intellect assisting the settlement of democracy
culture in the country, Turkey had taken major steps among the path leading
to the European Community.
POPULATION, LANGUAGE AND RELIGION OF
According to the results of the General Population Determination
executed in November 1997, the population of Turkey is 62.8 millions. There is
a tendency for decreasing in the population growth rate in recent years. The
annual population growth rate between years 1990-1997 had been determined to
be 15.1 in one thousand. If the population growth rate is assumed to be
stable, the calculated and expected population of Turkey in the midst of the
year 2000 would reach to 65,3 millions. The most important characteristic of
the population in Turkey is the amount of young population. Turkey is among
the fastest urbanizing countries of the world. The general sexuality ratio in
Turkey is 103 men for each 100 women. This result is obtained from the 1990
Population Count. Marmara Region, which is the most rapidly developing region
of Turkey in the fields of commerce and industry has the most concentrated and
dense population. Furthermore, the population is concentrated among the river
banks and plains suitable for agriculture.
Turkish is the native tongue of 90 percent
of the population in Turkey. Turks had used numerous written tongues since
8th century but the most common alphabets used by the Turks are the Kök Turk,
Uygur, Arabic and Latin alphabets.
After the declaration of republic and the completion of
the national unification, especially between 1923-1928 years, the problem of
the alphabet is discussed and debated. In order to carry the new Turkish
Republic to the modern civilization level, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder
of the Republic had believed to use the Western Culture and Civilization and
therefore with this aim Latin letters which are rearranged in a manner that
they are convenient to the vocal structure of the Turkish language are
accepted instead of the Arabic alphabet which was currently in use in 1928.
The Historic development of Turkish Language as a
Ancient Turkish (VI - X Century) : The language used in
Uygur tongue written documents with the Orhon and Yenisey Inscriptions.
Intermediate Turkish (XI - XV Century) : This language
certifies the period between the first Islamic written document and
completion of the formation of the new written Turkish dialects. (Anatolian
Turkish - Azerbaijani Turkish - Turkoman Turkish)
New Turkish (XV - XX Century) : (Uzbek language -
In Anatolia, a written language called Ottoman language
which was developed from Oğuz language was used during this period.
Modern Turkish (XX Century) : The modern Turkish includes the Turkish dialects used in various
locations all around the world in XX. Century. In this century, Turkey
Turkish language is used in Anatolia.
Turkish is located among the ending languages in the
world tongue classification. The root of the words are not altered while the
word structure and declination. The declinations and building of the words
are executed by the affixes. The order of the words and affixes are as
"root + building affix + declination affix" .
There are 29 letters in Turkish language in the Republic
period Latin letters. ç,ğ,ı,ö,ş letters are peculiar only to Turkish
99 % of the Turkish population is
Muslims. Turkey is a secular government and therefore the members of other religions
are free to realize their religious activities and ceremonies.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT OF
In Turkey, the
constitutional movements had initiated in the second half of the nineteenth
century and the first constitution was accepted in the final periods of the
ottoman Empire, in 1876 under the name of Kanun-i Esasi (The Principle Law)
The 1921 Constitution was the second constitution
founded and issued during the years of Independence War and had contained
obligatory rules compelled by the war situation and conditions. Three
constitutions were issued in the Republic Period. The first constitution of
the Turkish Republic was accepted in 1924, the second constitution was
accepted in 1961and the third and still valid constitution was accepted in
As all of the contemporary democracies, The republic of
Turkey had adopted the principle of the separation of powers. In the preface
of the constitution, which is also a section of the constitution and the
foundations of the government is stated, the fact of separation of powers is
emphasized as a limited cooperation between the state departments, the
application of definite authorizations and services and it is underlined that
this principle do not mean any superiority order among the state organs. In
the first constitution of the Turkish Republic, which was accepted and
applied after 1924, the principle of separation of powers was not included.
In this constitution, it is stated that the dominance belongs to the nation
without any condition, however the application of this dominance was charged
to the parliament. As a result, although the article stating that the laws
should not be contrary to the constitution is present in the constitution, no
supervision unit, in other words the constitution judgement was not suggested
in 1924 constitution. However, after the transition to the multi partisan
system in 1946 and the dominance of the power by the opposition at the
democratic elections in 1950, it was clearly observed that the problems were
still present and the necessity of the supervision of legislation council has
appeared. This opinion was primarily supported by the intellectuals and later
t5he political parties pledged their support to this opinion and in 1961
Constitution, the principle of the separation of powers was adopted for the
first time and the constitution judgement was anticipated and the Supreme
Court of Constitution had been inserted into the constitution. Therefore, the
verdict of the laws should not be contrary to the constitution had gained
According to the constitution, the dominance is
unconditionally of the nation. The nation applies this dominance under the
circumstances stated by the verdicts present in the constitution directly by
elections and indirectly by the authorized departments. The legislation,
execution and judgement units use the fact of dominance. The legislation
authority is granted to TBMM (Turkish Great National Assembly) and could not
be transferred by any means to anyone. The execution authority and service is
used and executed by the President of the Turkish Republic and the Board of
Ministers in accordance with the constitution and laws. Independent courts
use the judgement authority.
The jurisprudent state principle had initiated and
assisted the adoptation of the principle of separation of powers. This
principle supplies the dominance of the law in the living of public and
state. The power present in the legislation and execution authorities are
limited and balanced in accordance with the principle of the dominance of
The legislation processes and the activities and
processes of execution are supervised by the judgement. Therefore, the medium
of democracy is obtained and preserved in the government management. The
constitution is ornamented with these regulatory laws.
The constitutional laws, which have the status of being
obligatory and superior, are the basic jurisprudent rules, which are
obligatory to the organs of legislation, execution and judgement,
administration and other relevant persons or organizations. In addition, the
hierarchy of the norms is adopted and the transverse between the junior norms
and senior norms was prevented. The decisions of the Supreme Court of
Constitution obliges the organs of legislation, execution and judgement ,
administration and all natural and legal persons and these decisions compose
the legal sources of the governmental processes.
The Modification of the constitution; There are
unmodifiable verdicts of the constitution, even some verdicts are
unsuggestible for modification. Verdicts concerning that Turkish Government
is a Republic, the basics which the government regime is dependent, the
unified structure of the government, the shape of the flag, the Independence
march is the Turkish National Anthem, that Turkish is the national language
and that the capital of Turkey is Ankara are the verdicts of the constitution
which are unmodifiable even unsuggestible arrangements.
From the point of verdicts other than the above stated,
the qualified majority condition was suggested for the modification of the
constitution and a specialized method was developed. In order to modify the
constitution, the inscribed proposal signed by at least one third of the TBMM
members is necessary and the proposal should be discussed twice at the
General Assembly and the hidden election with the precipitation of the whole
members is necessary and the required majority at this election is three to
five of the numbers of the members.
The President of the Turkish Republic has the right to
return the law modifications concerning the modifications in the constitution
back to the TBMM for the purpose of re-assembly and reconsideration and the
right to present this modification to the public vote.
THE BASIC ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT
The services and the authorities of
the organs of legislation, execution and judgement and the public associations
and organizations were determined in the constitution in accordance with the
principle of the separation of power.
TBMM is composed of 550 Deputies. The Deputy elections
are executed in five-year periods. The Assembly can decide for a re -
election before the election period is fulfilled. The President of the
Turkish Republic can also decide for a re - election under the scope of the
authority granted by the constitution. The Assembly can postpone the
elections for one year in the situation of war. In the situation of the
membership of the TBMM become vacant, a single intermediate election is
executed for every election period.
The elections are executed under the supervision and
administration of the judgement organs, with the principles of equal, free,
hidden, one degree, general vote, public count and expression. The last
authority of the manners concerning elections is the Supreme Election
Committee. The Supreme Election Committee is composed of the members of the
Supreme Court and Council of State. Each Turkish citizen over age 18 and
completed his or her primal education had the right of selecting and each
Turkish citizen over 30 and completed their primal education had the right of
being elected. Law determines the method of the election. The law should
regard the principles of "Justice in Representation and Stability in
Administration". These principles were determined by the decisions of
the Supreme Court of Constitution and had been valid after the final modification
in 23 July 1995.
The Deputies represent the entire nation and pledge an
oath dependent on a text quoted from the constitution. The Deputies had the
legal immunity right for their expressed intellects and votes at the studies
in the Assembly. The situation of investigation and legal proceeding to the
Deputies are dependent to the removal of the immunities by the General
Assembly except for the situations of in the act of the crime scene. The
stated and decided punishments could be executed only after the end of the
The Assembly decides for the ending of the Deputy
service. The Deputy service of the persons whom are decided to be guilty for
the closing of their political parties by their oral or written statements
and actions also ends by the decisions and statements of the Supreme Court of
Constitution. The departure from the Deputy service requires the acceptance
of the General Assembly. If a deputy departs from his political party, his
deputy service becomes an independent Deputy. The legislation could apply to
the Supreme Court of Constitution for the reconsideration and termination of
the statements about the removal of the immunity and ending of the Deputy
TBMM executes its studies in accordance with the
internal regulations which is prepared by TBMM itself. The constitution and
the internal regulation suggest the study of the assembly in the shape of
committees. These committees are formed according to various specialization
subjects and the commissions execute prepatory studies and every citizen can
apply to these committees and inform the committee about their complaints.
Beside the special tasks and authorizations granted to
TBMM by constitution, issuing laws, modification of the laws, supervision of the
laws, granting authorization to the Board of Ministers to issue written
decrees at the influence of law on specific subjects are among the other
tasks and authorities of the Assembly. In addition, the tasks like decision
of minting money, declaration of war, martial law and extraordinary
situation, supervision and decision of the signing of the international
contracts, execution of the general and specific election conditions and the
execution of the death penalty statements approved by the courts are among
the tasks and authorities of TBMM.
The execution organ is composed of The President of the
Turkish Republic and the Board of Ministers.
The President of the Turkish Republic is the chairman of
the government. He represents the Republic of Turkey and the unification of
the Turkish nations with this position.
The President of the Turkish Republic is elected by
TBMM, among the Turkish citizens who have sufficient aspects of being elected
for the Deputy service or are at the Deputy service and are at or higher at
the age of 40 and taken higher education. The elections are executed with
hidden vote and the necessary vote is the majority of the votes which is the
two third of the number of the members of the Assembly. The service period is
seven years. The person elected for the President of the Turkish Republic had
to end its membership with any political parties and had to resign from the
duty of Deputy. One person can not be elected to become the President. The
President pledges the oath written in the constitution at the beginning of
The President of the Turkish Republic observes and
regards the application of the constitution and the regular and cooperative
studies among the state departments. He also has the authority and tasks
regarding the legislation, execution and judgement.
His tasks regarding the legislation are; to call for the
meeting of TBMM when necessary, to issue laws and return back to the Assembly
when necessity arouses in order to reconsider and discuss, to go to the
public vote for the modifications of the constitution when necessary, to
issue law and written decrees at the influence of the law, to apply to the
Supreme Court of Constitution with the assertion of incongruity to the
constitution relating to the internal regulations and to decide for the re -
election of the TBMM when the conditions are met.
The tasks concerning the judgement are limited to the
election of members to the supreme courts.
The President of the Turkish Republic assigns the Prime
Minister and later the Ministers with the proposal of the Prime Minister. He
consigns the representatives of the Turkish Government to the foreign
countries and he receives the representatives of the foreign countries
consigned to the Turkish Republic.
The Presidents of the Turkish Republic
* Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK (1923 - 1938) * İsmet İNÖNÜ (1938 - 1950) * Celal BAYAR (1950 - 1960) * Cemal GÜRSEL (1961 - 1966) * Cevdet SUNAY (1966 - 1973) * Fahri S. KORUTÜRK (1973 - 1980) * Kenan EVREN (1982 - 1989) * Turgut ÖZAL (1989 - 1993) * Süleyman DEMİREL (1993 - 2000) * Ahmet Necdet SEZER (2000 - ....)
There are two constitutional institutions stated in the
constitution about the President of the Turkish Republic. The General
Secretariat of the Presidency and the Government Supervision Institution are
charged with the tasks of supervision and development of the government
according to law in an organized and effective way. With the demand of the
President, these two institutions executes all sorts of investigation,
research and supervision activities of the public associations and
organizations, professional organizations displaying the properties of public
organizations, laborer and employer public organizations of all levels and
the societies and cognizant beneficial to the public. The Military
Organization and the judgement organs are beyond the task scope of the
Government Supervision Institution.
The Board of Ministers
The Board of Ministers is composed from the Prime
Minister and other Ministers. The Prime Minister is assigned by the President
among the Deputies. The ministers are elected among the Deputies or the
persons covering the necessary properties for being elected for deputy
service by the Prime Minister and are appointed by the President. The
President could end the service of the ministers with the proposal of the
After the formation of the Board of Ministers, their
program is declared in TBMM and is subjected to the vote of reliance. After
the vote of reliance, the government begins its task. The removal and
foundation of ministries, their tasks, authorities and their formation is
stated and decided by law.
The subject of the national defense is stated in the
section of constitution relevant with the Board of Ministers. In this
section, the institutions arranging the tasks and authorizations are stated
as High Command, General Staff Headquarters and Committee of National
The Committee of National Defense is composed of Prime
Minister, Chairman of the General Staff , Ministers of National Defense,
Internal Affairs and Foreign Affairs, Commanders of Land, Air and Sea Forces
and Commander of Gendarme directed by the President. Decisions concerning the
determination, application and designation of the national security policy
are taken in the Committee. These decisions are proposed to the Board of
Ministers. The proposed decisions concerning the existence, independence,
unification and indivisibility of the state and the preservation of the peace
and security of the nation are priory considered by the Board of Ministers.
The independent courts and supreme judgement organs use
the judgement authority in Turkey. The judgement section in the constitution
is set on the basis of the guarantee of the judges and the independence of
the court based on jurisprudent state basis. The necessity of this search of
justice is the basic guarantee of the human rights.
The courts are open to public unless there is a required
secret condition. The principle of being equal in punishment and crime, The
individuality of the crime responsible, the innocent evidence is in force.
Every individual had the right to demand justice before Judge.
There is a functional judgement system determined in
constitution and according to this fact the judgement competent authorities,
juridical judgement and the administrative judgement are two layered. The
Private Judgement Competent Authorities stated in the constitution are the
Military Courts and the Government Security Courts.
The Supreme Court of Constitution, the Supreme Court,
State Council, Military Supreme Court, Military Administrative Court and the
Court of Conflict are the supreme courts stated in the constitution.
The Supreme Committee of the Judges and Attorney
Generals and the Audit Department are the two institutions stated in the
judgement section of the constitution.
THE UNITER STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT
AND THE LOCAL ADMINISTRATIONS
The uniter structure of the Turkish Republic
is determined by Misak-ı Millî (National Borders) approved during the
There is the unification of legislation, execution,
judgement, jurisprudence and law in the government. The responsibility and
authorization of this unification is given to the central government. The
Uniter government is organized in the forms of central government and local
government. The central administration is composed of Prime Ministry and
Ministries beside legislation and judgement.
The Turkish Republic has adopted the locally
administrated uniter government model instead of central, unistructure uniter
government model. The administrative services of the state are executed not
only by central administration but also by the persons elected by the folk
accommodating in various districts. The local administration organizations,
province special boards, municipalities and villages possess public judicial
personalities, tasks and authorizations and possess properties. The local
administration organizations are directed according to laws issued by the
central administration and act in accordance with the mentioned laws. In
order to prevent the benefits of the political parties from the local
administration organizations and actions contrary to equivalence principle,
the supervision application named "idari vesayet" (administrative
testament) was put in force. The central administration uses the authority of
administrative wardship and the jurisprudentially appropriateness and
congruousness supervisions are sometimes executed. However the administrative
wardship can never replace the local administration and execute any
processes. For example, the decisions taken by the Province General Council
are dependent to the approval of the governor.
THE JURISPRUDENTIAL ORDER
jurisprudential order of the Turkish Republic is obtained by the processes of
law and execution (rules and regulations, statutes and written decrees),
primarily by constitution. Also the administration had assisted to obtain
this order by organizer processes (general announcements, notices and budget
application directives). The organizer processes of the execution and
administration could be at general status including all of the organizations
of the state or could be relevant with the specific subjects, organizations,
local administrations and autonomous associations.
The basic gain of the Republic Period is the adoptation
of the secular jurisprudential order together with the principle of
secularity. At the first years following the foundation of the Republic, as
the recreation of an appropriate jurisprudential system would take long, the
usage of the western sources with modifications required by the conditions of
the country was approved. In this scope, the Law of Marriage and Law of Debts
was arranged and put in force according to the Switzerland Law of Marriage,
The Jurisprudent Courts Procedure Law was arranged and put in force according
to the Switzerland Neuchatel Procedure Law, The Law of Penalty was arranged
and put in force according to the Italian Law of Penalty, The Penalty
Judgement Procedure Law was arranged and put in force according to the German
Penalty Judgement Procedure Law, The Law of Commerce was arranged and put in
force according to the laws of Germany, Britain, Japan and even Brazil. The
verdicts of the laws, which do not suit the necessary conditions of the
period, are changed in time. The Supreme Court of Constitution plays an
active role at the annulment decisions in cleaning some rules, which oppose
the rules, especially the ones opposing the equality of man and woman.
Either Law of Marriage had Law of Commerce preserved the
liberal spirit of the arrangement period until nowadays. The freedom of
agreement principle is dominant in both laws.
The universal principles of the Punishment Law are
stated both in the constitution and the Law of Punishment. No individual
could be punished for an action, which is not accepted crime, by the law in
force; and the punishment judge could not decide verdicts with comparison. If
the current law in force is different from the law in the period, which the
crime is committed, the beneficial law is applied. Until the guiltiness
becomes totally definite, no individual could be accepted to be guilty. No
individual could be charged to more severe punishments from the stated
punishment for that crime in the law. The responsibility of the punishment is
personal. The individual freedom could only be limited by law. The judge
decides for arresting and the period. The arresting without the decision of
the judge could only be in the in-the-act situations or in the situations in
which postponing the action could cause a drawback. The reason of arrest is
notified to the arrested or caught individuals and their relatives are
informed. These individuals are taken faced with judge in maximum period for
48 hours if the crime is relevant with the scope of Government Security
Courts and maximum 24 hours for other crimes, maximum 15 days when the crimes
concerning the mass crimes. No individual could be imprisoned without the
decision of the judge. These periods could be extended in the conditions of
extraordinary state, martial law and war.
Every individual had the right to claim and defend as
plaintiff or defendant at the courts. This is a right determined by the
constitution and is a major principle of the jurisprudential state. No
individual could be faced with a competent authority other than his legally
bounded court. The judgement authority is granted only to independent judges.
The judges and attorney generals are commissioned as legal and administrative
judgement. The judges can not be forced to retirement without their will
until the age of 65 principally.
The legal Judgement is two ranked. The juridical cases
are executed by the peace and fundamental courts as the first rank court
except for specially charged courses. The specially charged courts are the
severe punishment, business, children, traffic, cadastral, Commerce and
Government Security Courts. The competent authority for appeal the legal
cases is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is composed of punishment and
jurisprudence departments. Also there are general rules of punishment and
jurisprudence. There are no intermediate courts in Turkey.
The constitution had suggested military judgement for
the military personnel. The cases are executed at the Military courts and the
competent authority for appeal is the Military Supreme Court.
The Administrative Activities of the Government
It is stated in the constitution that the path of
judgement is clear for any actions and processes of the administration as a
necessary principle of the jurisprudent state. However the solitary processes
of the President, the decisions of the Supreme Military Assembly and the decisions
of the Judges and Attorney Generals Supreme Committee are excluded out of the
The cases against the action and processes of the
administration are executed at the administrative judgement. The
administrative judgement is also two ranked. The administrative, regional
administrative and the tax courts were founded in accordance with the issued
laws, which depend on the new arrangements stated in the 1982 constitution.
The administrative and the tax courts are first rank courts while the
regional administrative courts are high ranked courts in some cases. The
cases against the managerial actions and processes are executed by the first
and last rank courts.
REGIONS OF TURKEY
out on two continents, Turkey is a paradise where one can experience the
four season simultaneously... Whether be fond of art, history, archeology
or nature, you will feel the happiness beyond desires and hopes during your
stay in Turkey.
Surounded by the crystal clear waters of a shinning sea at
four directions, Turkey generously offers her 8000km long shores before
your eyes. Turkey is rich in flora and fauna.
fascinating civilizations render Turkey the heir of 10.000 years old
history which has still been examined for further ancient secrets to be
brought up into daylight. These lands inhales at any moment the mystery of
the past through the existenece of the statues of gods and goddesses,
temples, theathers, agoras, c hurches, mosques, medresseh, palaces and
caraqvanseraies. Becoming a united whole of daily life and all other
values, Turkey forms ideal circumstancesi.
Beginning from the south of splendid Toros Mountains lies the Mediterranean
coast with beautiful sceneries, sandy beaches, secluded coves, tranquil
ruin places and attractive holiday facilities...
It will be out of exaggeration to depict Anatolia presenting
its utmost spectacles to Agean coasts. As to Heredot's statement
"Embracing the most beautiful sky and mildest climate of the
world" gulfs and peninsulas, coves and golden beaches line up one
after the other among the Agean coast...
The Black Sea Region
Central Anatolian Region
Coasts curling besides mountains covered with very green
forests, valleys and plains. Fields of tea, hazelnut, tobacco and corn,
highway parallel to narrow coastline, coves,villages and beaches...
Being at the center of Turkey, Central Anatolian Region
embodies assorted beauties.Having been witness to the transitions of
important civilizations, today the region is the political center of
With its high mountain ranges, valleys, plains and
lakes,streams and riverbeds integrated with colors of purple, brown, grey,
yellow and red ,and adorned with the unique architectural samples of
Turkish culture, East and Southeast Anatolian Region bring to the sight
pleasurable panoramic views...
Hills of various sizes,fields of sunflowers and vineyards as
far as the eye can see. And Trakya constituting the European side of
Turkey.The region separated from Anatolia by Bosphorus, The Sea of Marmara
and the Dardanelles. A traveller from Europe on his/her arrival to Edirne
first encounters the masterpiece of Mimar Sinan, Selimiye Mosque.This
province boasts to have the most authentic works of Ottoman architecture.
The Aegean Region
If one were to claim that the most scenic
vistas in Anatolia can be found on the coasts of the Aegean, he could not be
accused of exaggerating. In the words of Heredotus, the Aegean coasts
"have the most beautiful sky and the best climate in the world." The
bays and peninsulas, coves and golden beaches stretch the length of these
beautiful shores. In this region where the countless events of mythology took
place, you will encounter the theaters, temples and agoras of ancient cities
at almost every turn. The city of Troy immortalized by Homer and Pergamum,
the art and cultural center and capital city of one of the most powerful
kingdoms of the day, are both located on Aegean soil. The provinces located in the Aegean region are Afyon,
Aydın, Denizli, İzmir, Kütahya, Manisa, Muğla and Uşak. Situated in Edremit Bay, at the meeting point of
beautiful sea, the health-giving springs of Akçay and a pine forest, the
scenic Ayvalık has been called the "Olive-grove Riviera." As you
leave the shores of the bay and head south past a countless number of
splendid holiday resort areas, you come to Foça, famous for the heroic
Turkish sailors based here. If you want to see Sardis, the capital of the
wealthy Lydian king, Croesus, you will have to detour inland a bit.
Located on the bay
of the same name, Izmir is a modern city brimming with life. It is also a
bustling commercial center and shopping in its busy markets is sure to be a
pleasurable experience. The peninsula of Çeşme with its brilliant waters,
superb beaches and thermal springs lies to the west of Izmir.
Among the most
famous cities of the ancient world, Ephesus was one of the biggest cities of
the Roman era. A treasury of all the riches of Ionian culture, Ephesus had a
reputation for philosophy and critical thinking. The Temple of Artemis, one
of the seven wonders of the ancient world, as well as countless statues,
theaters, libraries, markets and smaller temples were all architectural
symbols of the city's fame. Further to the south you will see the ancient
city of Priene, built according to a geometric plan designed by the great
architect of Milet, Hippodamos. Milet was a great center of commerce and
thought in the ancient world and important developments, scientific and
otherwise, took place here. The nearby Didim, though not one of the ancient
cities, is still famous for its magnificent temple dedicated to Apollo.
Izmir-Antalya road, Aphrodisias (Geyre) was an important cultural and art
center famous for its training in sculpture. On the same road is found the
world-famous Pamakkale. Passing this way without stopping and taking a look
is unthinkable. The plentiful calcium-rich thermal waters flowing out of the
mountain have, over time, created an extraordinary masterpiece. Here one may
bath in the health-giving waters while gazing at this natural phenomenon,
which is unparalleled in world geography. The ruins of the ancient city of
Hierapolis lie behind this calcium terraced mountain. When it comes to holiday resorts the first places that
come to mind in the southern part of the Aegean region are Bodrum, Marmaris,
Datça, Köyceğiz and Fethiye.
Halikarnas) is the birthplace of the great historian Heredotus. The mausoleum
of King Mausolos was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient
world. Marmaris, with its modern marina surrounded by its lush mountains and
hills, is an alluring vacation getaway with clean crystal clear waters.
Nearby is Datça adorned with flowers and a little further on Köyceğiz with
its pristine highlands, then it is the Lycian Graves, the Dead Sea (Ölü
Deniz) and Fethiye. Mamaris is an absolute paradise of endless sand and
eternal blue sea.
This central region of the country hosts a
number of interesting sites. Currently the center of modern Turkey's
political life, it has been the center of a number of important culture and
civilizations in the past.
The cities located in this region are Ankara, Çankırı,
Eskişehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Konya, Nevşehir, Niğde, Sivas, Yozgat, Aksaray,
Karaman and Kırıkkale.
The capital city of Ankara is located squarely in the
middle of Central Anatolia. The most visually impressive structure in the
city is the Anitkabir mausoleum built for Ataturk. Ataturk founded the modern
Republic of Turkey by winning the War for Independence and then made Ankara
Ankara is a city planned and developed for the modern
world. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations located in Ankara is among the
best museums in the country. In the museum are exhibits from Anatolian
civilizations starting from 50,000 BC and moving forward according to eras
until the 2nd century AD.
In the area
surrounding Ankara can be found important settlements of early Anatolian
civilizations. The Hittites migrated to the Anatolian plateau from the Caucus
Mountains and set up the first kingdom in history to encompass the whole of
Anatolia from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and from the Aegean Sea
stretching east. The capital of the Hittite Empire Hattushash (now Bogazkale)
and the second largest city Shapinuva are both located northeast of Ankara in
the province of Çorum. Hattushash with its massive walls was a city of
temples. Reliefs of all of the gods and goddesses of the Hittites can be seen
in the open air temple in Yazilikaya near the Hattushash. Yazılıkaya was an
important pantheon of the Hittites. Alacahoyuk is another important Hittite
settlement found near Hattushash. Alacahöyük is known for the sphinxes which
can be seen at the city gates.
Sometime in the
1200's BC, the Phrygians came to the Anatolian Plateau from Europe. The
Phrygian capital, Gordion, was established near Polatli west of Ankara.
Alexander the Great is supposed to have become the ruler of Asia by virtue of
'undoing' Gordion's knot with his sword. The tomb of the Phrygian king Midas,
who according to legend turned everything he touched into gold, is located
near Gordion. Near Eskişehir and Afyon there are a number of Phrygian cities
and worship centers.
Now let's head down to vast fertile Konya Plain on the
northern slopes of the Taurus Mountains. Catalhöyük, one of the worlds oldest
cities is located here. This city, located southeast of Konya, belongs to the
Neolithic Era and was an important cultural center with many temples
decorated with frescoes by city artisans. Konya and the surrounding regions
would later be ruled during the Chalcolithic, Bronze, Hittite, Phrygian,
Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras. It became the capital city of
the Selçuk in the 12th century AD and consequently experienced the most
important "Renaissance" period of its long history. In the 13th
century, Konya was completely redecorated with Selçuk architecture. The great
Turkish philosopher Mevlana, who built his philosophy on human love and
believed that mystical unity with God could be reached by means of the
'Sema', a whirling dance to music performed by the dervishes, lived in Konya
and developed a following here.
Every year in the
month of December, there is a 'Mevlana Week' in Konya, which includes
performances of the 'Sema'. Mevlana is buried with his father Bahaeddin Veled
in the Green Tomb (Yesil Turbe), which has become the city symbol. The
Dervish Lodge and Mevlana Museum adjacent to the tomb are open to the public.
To the southwest of Konya is Beysehir Lake, a still
undiscovered paradise full of natural beauty. To the southwest of the lake,
Kubad Abad, the summer home of the Selçuk rulers, and the castle found on
Kızkalesi Island are both sites worth visiting. The Esrefoğlu Mosque and
Tomb, located in Beysehir, have an important place among the timber
architectural structures of the Selçuk period.
As you leave Konya
and head towards Aksehir you will probably notice that there is a smile
playing at the corners of your mouth. This is undoubtedly due to the fact
that you are approaching the home of Nasreddin Hoca, the famous folk
philosopher and master comedian (13th c.), whose brilliant wit, quick retorts
and stories with ever so subtle moral points have attracted audiences far
beyond the borders of Turkey. This much-loved folk figure died in 1284 and
his tomb in Aksehir is the city's most symbolic structure.
As you travel through the region of Eskişehir, your lips
will undoubtedly be reciting lines from the poetry of Yunus Emre. This
eminent pioneer of Turkish poetry used the language, idioms and concepts of
the ordinary man in such an unpretentious fashion to convey such meaningful
ideas regarding divine justice, love and friendship that to not visiting his
grave, located in the village bearing his name (Yunus Emre Köyü), would be a
Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia
With its high mountain ranges, plateaus,
plains and lakes, its creek and river beds splashed with hues of purple,
brown, gray, yellow and red, and some of the best Turkish architecture
anywhere, this region of Anatolia is like a historical documentary on ancient
life. Sivas, Divriği, Erzurum, Battalgazi, Harput, and Ahlat, all cities
situated in this region, were important centers of Selçuk art.
In Eastern Anatolia are the cities of Ağrı, Bingöl,
Bitlis, Elazığ, Erzincan, Erzurum, Hakkari, Kars, Malatya, Muş, Tunceli, Van,
Ardahan and Iğdır, while in Southeaster Anatolia the larger cities are
Adıyaman, Diyarbakır, Gaziantep, Mardin, Siirt, Şanlıurfa, Batman, Şırnak and
Erzurum is located on a large plain at an altitude of
1950 meters. In the city, there are many religious schools, tombs and mosques
from both the Selçuk and Ottoman period which are well-worth seeing. The city
of Kars in the northeast is famous for its castle and nearby Ocaklı (Ani) is
a historical city with rich architecture from the 10th and 11th centuries.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı
Dağ), whose peak soars up 5165 meters is important for a number of different
faiths. It is believed that after the Flood, in which all humanity was
destroyed, the ark of Noah came to rest on Mount Ararat and as the waters
receded Noah and his family settled on the nearby Plain of Iğdır. As their
numbers increased, they eventually spread along the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers to other parts of Anatolia. Accordingly, Iğdır is seen as the center
from which the second generation of humanity multiplied and again spread over
the world. The magnificent palace complex of Ishak Paşa, which looks down
upon Dogubeyazit, was built in the later part of the 17th century by the
Ottoman governor, Ishak Paşa. The site of the castle is superb and it is made
up of a kitchen unit, a mosque and separate womens and mens quarters.
Lake Van is
Anatolia's beauty center. In order to see all of this beauty, it is
absolutely essential that a tour of the entire lake be made, during which
time the beautiful mountain silhouettes, bays, beaches, islands and important
Turkish cultural and art centers may be seen. The city of Van, which lies on
the southeastern shores of the lake, was the capital city of the Urartu
empire. The Van Castle, which was built by the Urartus around 1000 BC, is a
dynamic example of the age in which it was built and is definitely worth
South of Van, the city of Edremit is a poplar vacation
getaway famous for its beaches, camping spots and restaurants. On the island
of Akdamar is located the Akdamar Museum, which was originally a 10th century
As the Tigris and Euphrates flow towards the plains of
Mesopotamia, they pass through an important region of Anatolia. Some of the
bigger cities in this region are Diyarbakir, Mardin, Adiyaman, Şanlı Urfa and
Gazi Antep. The region is the oldest cultural settlement center in Anatolia.
North of Diyarbakır is Cayonu, the most important neolithic settlement of the
area. The basalt walls of Diyarbakır, which are more than 5 kilometers in
length, have the distinction of being the longest city walls in the country. Mardin is one of the few cities in the country which has
actually preserved its traditional aesthetic architecture. It is a unique
site not only because of its well-maintained state but also because of its
unusual location on top of a hill.
The prophet Abraham, who is the father of 3 different
faiths, is believed to have lived in Şanlı Urfa and Harran and so they are
considered holy places. The Ataturk Dam, built in the town of Bozova near
Şanlı Urfa is the biggest in Turkey and 4th largest in the world. The lake is
surrounded with beautiful scenic sites. The Plain of Harran with its vast
farmland will be the most productive agricultural region of the country. Gazi
Antep is the most important industrial and agricultural area in southeastern
Anatolia. We doubt that any visitor who has come all the way to Gazi Antep
will leave without first having tasted the famous local varieties of kebap,
lahmacun and baklava or without buying a few packages of Antep pistachios for
friends and relatives.
To the northeast
of Adıyaman, on top of Mount Nemrut (Nemrut Dağ) is the mausoleum made for
the Commagene King, Antiochus I. On the east and west of the memorial grave
site are ritual terraces and on these terraces are gigantic statues of the
gods. The best time to see Mount Nemrut is at sunset.
Malatya is an important industrial and agricultural
region on the lower Euphrates. It is famous for its apricots and the 13th
century Ulu Cami mosque in Battalgazi with its beautiful glazed tiles
The Black Sea Region
Beaches that seem to go on forever,
mountains covered with verdant green and picturesque valley and plains.
Fields of tea, hazelnuts, tobacco and corn. The winding blacktop road
following the near strip of beach bounded by steep mountains falling, it would
seem, straight into the sea. Bays, fishing villages and beaches. This is the
Black Sea region. The following cities are all located in the Black Sea
region: Amasya, Artvin, Bolu, Çorum, Düzce, Giresun, Gümüşhane, Kastamonu,
Ordu, Rize, Samsun, Sinop, Tokat, Trabzon Zonguldak, Bartın and Karabük.
You can begin your
trip in this charming luxuriantly green little region of ours from the
endless hazelnut orchards and foaming sea of Akcakoca. Let us not neglect,
however, to mention the industrial cities of Eregli, Zonguldak, Karabuk and
two cities of the interior one, Safranbolu, which is full of examples of
Turkish architecture of unrivaled beauty, the other city being Devek, famous
for its intricately carved walking canes. Along the coast you will come to
the delightful recreational sites such as Inkum, Amasra and Cakraz. As you
pass through Cide and Inebolu and approach Sinop, you might begin to wonder
if there are still traces of the Amazons in the forests. As far as can be
determined from mythological evidence the women warriors called Amazons lived
in the region. The name of Sinop, one of the country's province, comes from a
queen of the Amazons named Sinope. The birthplace of the philosopher Diyojen,
this city, with its natural bays protected from the winds, is one of the
Black Seas best holiday spots.
Samsun is one of
the Black Sea biggest ports and is a industrial and commercial center. The
first rays of light that would eventually lead to the birth of the Turkish
Republic broke through the darkness here. The characteristic feature of the coast between Samsun
and Trabzon are the extensive hazelnut orchards. The cities of Unye and Fatsa
east of Samsun are popular holiday resorts with natural scenic beauty,
beaches, accommodations, camping and restaurants. Ordu is a charming Black
Sea city with hazelnut orchards stretching out for miles in every direction.
The Castle of Giresun, perched upon a steep rocky slope, is like a crown upon
the city. From the castle, the beaches of Giresun, stretching out like cords
of gold are unforgettable. The Roman general Lucullus saw cherries for the
first time in Giresun and liked them so much we had them introduced into
Another important commercial port on the
Black Sea is Trabzon. As the beginning of Iran's transit road, it connections
with the ports of the other countries on the shores of the Black Sea. The
Trabzon Castle was founded on an area shaped like a table and the architecture
which has grown up around the castle reflects Byzantine, Commagene and
Ottoman styles. The most important structure in Trabzon is the Ayasofya
Museum. The interior is decorated with frescoes and on the exterior are a
number of reliefs. The panoramic birds-eye view of the city which can be had
from Boztepe Park and the Ataturk Mansion are splendid indeed. Near Macka
inside the Altindere National Park is the Sumela Monastery. The Sumela
Monastery, which is perched on high cliffs overlooking the Altindere valley,
was founded in the 14th century by Alexius III. Inside the monastery is a
church, a library, various other rooms and a sacred spring.
The area around Rize is the part of the country
which receives the most precipitation. In this region where every conceivable
hue of green can be see, tea is grown on terraced fields set into the
mountainsides. It is the center of tea production in Turkey and the view from
the Agricultural Park is as much like heaven as anyone could imagine. Hopa is
the last Turkish port before reaching the Russian border. South of Hopa is
the province of Artvin. Artvin was established on the terraced heights
overlooking the Çoruh River valley. Artvin's highlands are very famous and
there are still Georgian museum and churches in the area. Çoruh , an area
full of wild beauty, is ideal for river sports of all kinds.
The Mediterranean Region
South of the majestic Taurus Mountains, lie
the shores of the Mediterranean Sea with its beaches of fine sand, its vistas
of uncommon beauty, its many ancient ruins, its hidden coves and alluring
vacation getaways. Here history and mythology are inseparably intertwined and
there are many legendary stories that prove this fact. Let us briefly share
two of them. The monster Chimera, who spews fire out of his mouth, is
supposed to have lived in the mountains west of Antalya. The Lydian hero,
Bellerofontes, cut the monsters head of with his sword. Today, the fire which
rises out of the ground on the southeastern slopes of Mount Olympus (Tahtalı
Dağ) is still said to be coming from the mouth of Chimera. The second legend
is related to one of the unlucky love affairs of Apollo, the god of all the
fine arts. Apollo falls in love with a beautiful girl named Daphne, but the
girl is unresponsive to his overtures. One day while chasing Daphne in an
area close to Antakya, Daphne's feet turn into tree roots and her hands and
arms become branches and limbs and she turns into a laurel tree, which is
called 'defne' in Turkish. According to early sources, Saint Paul was born in
Tarsus and the mythological Santa Claus was actually born in the town of
Patara and lived and died in what is today Kale. The shores of the Mediterranean are just as full of
antique artifacts as are the shores of the Aegean. In the ancient Lycian
region west of Antalya, one may see the matchless beauty of the mountain
cities, Termessos and Arikand, as well as the coastal towns such as Olimpos,
Kale, Kekova and Kaş. The ancient cities of Perge, Aspendos and Side are
located on the coastal plain east of Antalya, which was called 'Pamphylia'.
Antalya is one of
the Mediterranean's most important cities and is Turkey's hottest vacation
spot, with the Konyaltı beaches on the west and the Lara beaches to the east
lying at the foot of Antalya's massive mountain range. It is an attractive
holiday getaway with palm-lined streets, beautiful parks, plentiful
accommodation, restaurants, lots of night-time entertainment and a cozy
marina. The symbol of this city, founded in the 2nd century BC is the Yivli
Minaret, which dates back to the Selçuk era. The Asağı Düden Waterfall to the
east of Antalya flows over huge boulders into the sea. West of Antalya is the
cute little holiday town of Kemer, famous for its sandy beaches surrounded by
pine forests and mountains. The next big town east of Antalya is Alanya, a panoramic
port city on the southern slopes of the majestic Taurus Mountains surrounded
with orange, lemon and banana groves. Used by the Selçuk Sultan, Alaaddin
Keykubat as a winter residence, Alanya has a shipyard that dates back to the
same era and was one of the most advanced in the world at that time. It is
also famous for its 9th century castle and its charming beaches. Near Anamur is a castle from the Middle Ages. It is
situated between two beaches and is certainly as magnificent as any of the
castles along the coast. The road from Anamur to Silifke with its endless
curves and bends follows a route studded with breathtaking coastal vistas.
caves near Narlıkuyu are called "Heaven and Hell" (Cennet ve
Cehennem). The "Heaven" cave, which is quite large, also has a
small church inside it. The castle of 'Kızkalesi', which is situated in the
water across from the medieval castle of Korykos, seems to rise out of the
Two of the surprises which lie on the road to Mersin are
Kanlıdivane and Viranşehir, two old Roman cities. With is charming parks, its
beach boulevards, commercial port and free trade zone, Mersin is ones of the
most modern cities on the Mediterranean. East of Tarsus, the 'Çukurova' plain is a fertile agricultural
region known especially for raising cotton. In the middle of this plain is
found the city of Adana, a rich city with a large textile industry. East of
this region is the Dörtyol (Issos) Plain where Alexander the Great defeated
the Persian king Darius. As a result of his victory, a port city bearing his
name was established and thus we have modern day Iskenderun.
to the southeast, the road goes through the Belen Pass to Antakya (Antioch).
This first Christian community founded by Saint Peter has given Antakya a
special religious significance. The first sermons were preached in a cave
outside the city. It is visited today by many as a site of pilgrimage.
Antakya also has a mosaic exhibit of unusual beauty in its museum.
another province of the Mediterranean waiting "to be discovered."
Though its cuisine resembles in some ways the cuisine of the surrounding
regions, the peculiar and often subtle tastes of the Kahramanmaras cuisine
with its specially made orchid drink (salep), its world famous ice-cream of
goat and cows milk and its various peppers, along with its gilded silver,
leather and copper works, which were famous throughout the Ottoman empire,
are still alive and offer a unique experience to visitors.
Trakya and Marmara
Hills of all sizes with vineyards and
sunflower fields as far as the eye can see. This is the region of Turkey
known as Trakya. It is separated from the rest of Turkey by the Bosphorus,
the Sea of Marmara and the Dardenelle Straits. The first thing a visitor
coming from Europe into Edirne would see is the Selimiye mosque, a
masterpiece of the architect Sinan. It seems as though this city boasts
proudly of hosting the structures most characteristic of Ottoman
The cities found in this region are Balıkesir, Bilecik,
Bursa, Çanakkale, Edirne, İstanbul, Kırklareli, Kocaeli, Sakarya,Tekirdağ and
The region of Marmara has a turbulent past.
481 years before the birth of Jesus, during the II Persian War, the Persian
King Xerxes made a bridge of boats over the Dardanelle Straits between Abydos
and Sestos. In the same place we have the renowned love affair of Leander and
Hera, who were buried in the waters of the strait. And, it was here that
Mustafa Kemal won the first big victory against enemy forces in World War I.
The lively city of Izmit with its fruit orchards and
vegetable gardens is now an industrial center. Nearby is Hereke famous for
The city of Gebze, on the north of the
Marmara Sea, has a very rich historical past and the city of Iznik, renowned during
Ottoman times for its glazed tiles, is worth paying a visit.
The land of silk, Bursa was the first capital city of
the Ottoman Empire. In this city, which has come to be identified with lush
green, places worth visiting are as follows: The Green Mosque (Yesil Cami),
The Green Tomb (Yesil Turbe) and its splendid gardens, The Magnificent Mosque
(Ulu Cami), Emir Sultan and Yildirim Mosques and the Ethnographic Museum.
The country's first ski resort was built on
Uludag Mountain, which soars into the air just south of the city.
Tekirdag, which has beautiful examples of Ottoman
architecture and broad beaches, is known for its vineyards and wine
Balikesir is the center of a broad and important region.
To the north is Gonen with its famous thermal springs and the commercial port
of Bandırma. After Istanbul this port is the biggest in the Marmara Sea. On
the shores of Lake Manyas near Barindirma is the Bird Heaven (Kuşcenneti)
One the shores of the Marmara Sea are a whole host of
beautiful beaches and holiday resorts. Among them are Cinarcik, Armutlu,
Gemlik, Mudanya, Erdek, the Marmara and Avsa Islands, Denizkent, Sarköy,
Silivri and lastly Yalova, a site famous for its thermal springs.